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wii 


HX JVRT R 








! 
HARVARD UNIVERSITY 


LIBRARY OF THE 


Classical Department 


HARVARD HALL 


| B. H. Beackwe t, 
Bookseller, 





50 & 51, BROAD ST., |, 





5 





0 : 
, Clarendon Press Series 


XENOPHON 
HELLENICA, BOOKS I, II 


WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 


BY 


G. E. UNDERHILL, M.A. 


FELLOW AND TUTOR OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE 


PART I._INTRODUCTION AND TEXT 


Oxford 


AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1888 


[ All rights reserved | 


TTos 


¥ Oot 24 G62 
HARVARD UNIVERSE, 
Glassical Department, 


oa a a 
Phe | CHO titel, 
Sondon 


HENRY FROWDE 





OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE 


AMEN CoRNER, E.C. 


PREFACE. 


Tue text adopted in the present edition of the first two 
books of Xenophon’s Hellenica follows in the main the last 
revision of Dindorf, published in 1885, any departures from 
which are duly noticed as they occur. 

The introduction is divided into several sections. The 
first tries rather perhaps to raise than to solve the niain points 
in the complicated question. as to the method of composition 
and the intention of the author in these two books,—a 
question, which, since the criticism of Niebuhr, has been 
vigorously discussed by Peter, Sievers, Breitenbach, and many 
other German scholars, but with results on the whole more 
negative than positive. The views taken in this and in the 
following section on the equally vexed question of Xenophon’s 
chronology are chiefly based on those advanced by Breiten- . 
bach in his second edition in the Weidmann series of Greek 
and Latin Classics (Berlin, 1884). The third section en- 
deavours to supply, from other authorities, what Xenophon 
himself almost entirely omits, an account of the internal 
affairs of Athens during the last seven and a half years of the 
Peloponnesian War; and for this portion of the introduction — 
Gilbert’s Betirdge zur Innern Geschichte Athens (Leipzig, 
1877) has been found ‘most useful. The fourth section 
states once again and discusses as briefly as possible the 
many difficulties of fact and of law occurring in Xenophon’s 
version of the trial of the Generals after the battle of Arginusae; 
and any completeness to which it may pretend is mostly due 

A2 


4 PREFACE. 


to the many valuable suggestions kindly made by Mr. T. 
_ Case, Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College.. 

The notes are intended not only to explain the critical 
and grammatical difficulties in the text, which, though serious 
when they do arise, fortunately occur but seldom, but also to 
‘supply a commentary upon the history of the times, and to 
point out even at the risk of repetition the numerous gaps 
and points of obscurity in Xenophon’s narrative. 

To give greater completeness to the Edition, a chrono- 
logical summary, a running analysis, and a copious index 
of proper names have been added. . 

Finally, the Editor is much indebted to Mr. Evelyn Abbott, 
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, for the great assistance 
which he has so generously given him, in carrying the book 
through the press, and for the many corrections and improve- ° 
ments which he has made for him throughout the whole 
work. 

G. E. U. 


MAGDALEN COLLEGE, OXFORD, 
April, 1888. 


INTRODUCTION. 
§ 1. THE COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA. 


ALTHOUGH the writings of Xenophon, known as the Hellenica, 
havea certain unity of subject in so far as they all treat of Greek 
history, yet even a cursory examination soon reveals that they 
fall into two, if not three, parts, distinguished by intervals of 
time, by differences of style,and apparently by variety of purpose. 
The first part again subdivides into two, of which the one 
extends from bk. i. to bk. ii. 3. 10, and continues the history of 
the Peloponnesian War from the point where it was 
left in the unfinished work of Thucydides down to erry Pi 
the destruction of the Long Walls of Athens—an 
event which Thucydides ! himself takes as marking the end of the 
war : while the other takes up the course of events again after an 
interval of six months at fi. 3.11, and relates what was virtually 
but another outbreak of thé same war, down to the 
final pacification of Athens by Pausanias king of 404 B.C. to 
Sparta. The second part (bks. iii.—vii.) resumes. iia 
the narrative of Greek history one and a-half years later, and 
continues it, without any serious break, down to 362 B.C., the 
year of the battle of Mantinea and the death of 
Epaminondas. Two questions, therefore, arise at gre ay — 
once, (1) what is the relation of the first part to the = 
History of Thucydides? and (2) what is the relation of the parts 
to one another ? 

As to the first question, evidence both internal, and external 
alike points to books i. ii. being designedly a continuation of 
Thucydides. Diodorus Siculus (xiii. 42) says Revopap nat Oedrop- 
’ wos ah’ Sv aréhire Qovxvdidns thy apxiv meroinvrat. Dionysius of 
Halicarnassus* and Marcellinus ® give similar testimony. And 


bv. 26. ° 3 Ad Pomp. 4. $Vit. Thuc, § 45. 


6 | INTRODUCTION. 


internal evidence shows that .it is rtot a continuation merely in 
the sense in which Thucydides continued Herodotus, or Theo- 
pompus continued Thucydides, by beginning an independent 
narrative at the point where that of the predecessor stopped ; 
but that it was written with the express purpose of completing 
what Thucydides for some unknown reason had left unfinished. 
On no other hypothesis, except indeed that the beginning of the 
Hellenica itself is lost (which seems exceedingly unlikely), can it 
be explained why the author should begin, not only without an 
introduction—a preliminary which Xenophon dispenses with in 
other works—but without any explanation, however brief, of the 
events immediately preceding, and of the persons engaged in 
them, sufficient to put the reader in a position to understand the 
further development of their history. On the contrary, Xeno- 
phon plunges him ‘in medias res’ with the connecting phrase 
pera S€ ravra, which seems to refer. to the battle of Cynossema, 
previously described by Thucydides’, He is supposed to be 
already acquainted with Thymochares, the Athenian general, 
and Agesandridas ?, the Spartan general, who had a few months 
previously met in battle off Eretria ; and also to know the place, 
i.e. the Hellespont, where the Athenian and Lacedaemonian 
fleets were stationed when this second (avs) naval engagement 
took place; while not a word is said of the disaster which 
Diodorus (xiii. 41) relates to have overtaken Agesandridas off 
Mount Athos in the interval. Similarly, Dorieus is suddenly 
represented as sailing from Rhodes to the Hellespont, but in 
Thucydides ® he last appears at Miletus, whence Diodorus * tells . 
us that he had been sent by Mindarus to Rhodes. The Athenian 
generals are introduced with the article (rots orparnyois) as if 
they had been already mentioned ; but we are left to gather 
from Thucydides *® that they were Thrasyllus and Thrasybulus. 
- Xenophon omits altogether to mention the movement of the 
Athenian fleet from Cyzicus to the mouth of the Hellespont °, 
and the corresponding movement of the Peloponnesian fleet from 
Elaeus to Abydos. So, too, (§6) Alcibiades sails up from no 


1 Cf. Thuc. viii. 107, 108 mpos 7d perédmapoy...ind robs adrovs xpdvous. 
? Thuc. viii. 95. 
S viii. 84. * xiii. 38. 5 viii. 104. 

. © Cf. Thuc. viii. 107 with i. 1. 2. 


§ 1. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA. 7 


one knows where, and (§ 12) Theramenes comes from Macedonia; 
whereas Thucydides! had left the one in Samos and the other 
in Athens. The motive of Tissaphernes’ journey to the Helles- 
pont is never stated, and can only be supplied by a reference to 
Thucydides’ narrative”. All these passages, therefore, seem to 
take for granted an acquaintance with Thucydides, and if it be 
further supposed that the last fifteen chapters of Thucydides’ 
eighth book have been lost—for to all appearances an interval of 
some five or six weeks must have elapsed since the last event 
mentioned in Thucydides and the first alluded to by Xenophon— 
even the points of obscurity in them are capable of explanation. 

Again in books i.-ii. 3. 10 Xenophon adopts an annalistic 
mode of treatment, which it would appear from the later books 
was entirely foreign to his natural inclination for grouping 
events together. But so soon as he has brought his narrative 
down to the surrender of Athens, which Thucydides* had 
announced as the goal of his undertaking, he drops this method, 
and relates the usurpation of the Thirty without any definite 
marks of time. And the fact that even in the first period 
he does not adhere consistently * to Thucydides’ chronological 
system of summers and winters, shows still more plainly that he 
was modelling his own work on that of somebody else. For 
once ° he forgets to give the beginning of the year, twice the 
beginning of the winter °, and, more often than not, he does not 
notice the end of the summers and winters—data which Thucy- 
dides never omits. And sometimes before he has finished with 
the narrative of one year, he anticipates the events of the next’. . 
Further, Xenophon, like Thucydides, at the end of each year 
finds a place wherein to put a brief account of contemporary 
events, e.g. in Persia, Sicily, or elsewhere, which he could not 
well weave into his main narrative ; but, unlike Thucydides, he 
does not make it plain at what season of the year in question 
they occurred®. Finally, Xenophon ® skips over the interval of 
six months which elapsed between the surrender of Athens and 
the appointment of the Thirty without any definite mark of time 


1 viii, 92, 108. 3 viii. 109. 

Sv. 26. * Cp. Introd. § 2 on Xenophon’s Chronology. 

5 Probably ati.5. 11. 61.4. 20; 5.15. 7 Chi. 43. 31; i. 5. 16. 
* Cf. i. 1. 373 2.19; 3.15 5. 21; 6.1. ® ii. 1. 8, 9. 


8 INTRODUCTION. 


at all, save the mention of an eclipse’, so that, had we his 
narrative only, we should have no idea that any such interval 
had occurred. . 

All the evidence, therefore, external and internal alike, seems 
to show that Xenophon purposely intended the first part of the 
Hellenica to be a completion of Thucydides’ unfinished history 
of the Peloponnesian War. 

In discussing the second question, the relation of the two 
parts of the Hellenica to each other, we get little to help us from 
external testimony. A distinction into two parts does indeed 
seem to be implied in the words of Marcellinus ?—ra 8 ray 
Ddrov @ érév (of the Peloponnesian War) mpdypyara dvarAnpot 
3 re Gedropros cai 6 Hevodar, ols cvvamre: tHv “EAAneKny iorropiav. 
Similarly, too, Dionysius of Halicarnassus* speaks of Xeno- 
phon’s third great work as riv ‘EAAnvxny kai fy (sc. ivropiay) 
KaréArey GreAn Oovxvdidns, év 7 Karadvovrai re of rpidxoyra Kat Ta 
reixn trav A@nvaiwy, & Aaxedapdvoe rabeidov, ab&ts dvicravra. 
But both authors seem to make the distinction one of time only, | 
and to regard the two parts as together forming a connected 
whole. Such a view, however, on a comparison of them, woule 
appear td be quite untenable. 

In books iii.—vii. all the trammels of Thucydides’ system of 
arrangement and chronology disappear. Though they contain 
the history of forty years, the beginnings of years are only twice 
noticed *. Summers and winters are no longer taken as formal 
marks of time, but are casually mentioned only in conjunction 
with events®. And the events themselves are.no more related 
year by year in the order that they occurred, but Xenophon 
groups them together wherever he sees a causal nexus between 
them, often narrating a connected series of events quite con- 
tinuously, and then returning to his starting-point in order to 
bring up the general course of Greek history to the same 
date®. 

Again, although even in the first two books Xenophon’ once 
breaks through the impersonal style of writing, which he had 
inherited from Thucydides, and in two or three other passages 

1 ii. 3. 4. 3 Vit. Thuc. § 45. 8 Ep. ad Pomp. 4. 

* Cf. vii. 1. 15 2. Io. - § Cf. iii. 2.63 iv. 8 7. 

® Cf. iii. 1. 1-iii, 2. 20 with iii. 2. 21-31. 7 iL 3. 56. 











§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA. 9 


adds moral comments, such as are hardly to be found in the 
earlier historian, still in the later books he allows his own moral 
and theological proclivities to appear much more on the surface. 
The general theme of the five books seems to be the rise and 
downfall of Spartan greatness’. As formerly in Athens, so now 
at Sparta, power gives birth to v8pis, dBpis to impiety, and 
impiety soon brings punishment in its train®. Unwarned by 
examples, the Thebans use their supremacy with an insolence 
equally great, and are overtaken with a ruin still more rapid. 
As with states, sd with individuals. Dercyllidas and Agesilaus 
show reverence towards the gods*, and reap an immediate 
reward for their piety : impiety as quickly meets with punish- 
ment. Xenophon is no longer the simple annalist of facts ; now 
he appears in his better known character of the moralist, 
reading his lessons from the pages of human history. 

The differences of style between the earlier and later books 
are no less marked. Books i., ii. are disfigured by omissions, 
by obscurities left unexplained, by unequal and disproportionate 
treatment of events, in themselves equally important, by un- 
accountable breaks and interruptions, and by a general want of 
finish—of which more hereafter. But books iii.-vii., whatever 
may be thought of their positive value as historical documents, 
contain a narrative which is indeed plainly and simply told, but 
at the same time with an admirable literary finish. In them 
Xenophon follows the requirements of literary, if not of historical, 
proportion. No incidents are related at undue length; no 
events, which he chooses to bring into his narrative at all, are 
scamped. The speeches and dialogues so frequently introduced 
are all appropriate and suitable to the occasion. In passing 
from the earlier to the later books, we seem to pass from chaos 


"to order. 


Finally, internal evidence seems to point to the earlier and 
later books of the Hellenics having been written at very different 
dates‘. For in i. ii., with one exception, there are no allusions 


' Cf. v. 3.273 4.1. - 2 Cf. v. 4.123 vi. 3. 1. 

$ iil. I. 17-19; 4. IT; 3. 20. 

* Rosenstiel (De Xenophontis Historiae Graecae parte bis edita) in- 
geniously tries to show by an examination of the use of certain words, 
and more especially of éreoOat and dxodovéeiv, and of wepi and du¢l, that 


10 INTRODUCTION. 


to any event happening later than 403 B.C., though in several 
passages such allusions might have been aptly introduced’. 
The exception is the last words of ii., where Xenophon speaks 
of the fidelity of the Athenian democrats to their oath of 
amnesty as continuing ére cai viv. Here Niebuhr long ago 
pointed out that such praise can only mean that certain definite 
persons, who had been guilty of certain definite acts during the 
usurpation of the Thirty, had never down to that time been 
prosecuted or in any way attacked. Therefore the interval 
between the Amnesty and the time when tlese words were 
written cannot have been very long, not more than ten or fifteen 
years at most. Now Xenophon returned to Greece after his 
Asiatic expedition with Cyrus in 394B.c. He must, therefore, 
have finished bk. ii. shortly after that date. But the last five 
books he must have written much later; for in vi. 4. 37, when 
recounting the events of 371, 370 B.C., he alludes to the death of 
Alexander of Pherae in 357 B.c., and in bk. vii. he ends his 
history with the battle of Mantinea in 362 B.c. 

So far, therefore, it may be concluded that bks. i. and ii. 
were composed at a time, on a system, and with an object, quite 
different from bks. iii.—vil. 

But, as already mentioned, the difficulties in bks. i., 11. do 
not end here: there still remain to be considered the strange 
omissions, the unequal and disproportionate treatment of events 
of very varying importance, and the numerous points of obscurity 
which disfigure these two books. 

To begin with the omissions, which occur not only in the 
interval between the point where Thucydides ends and 


the Hellenics fall into three parts, the first extending from the begirining 
to ii. 3. 10, the second from ii. 3. 11 to v. 1. 36, and the third from 
v.2tothe end. The first and third parts exhibit, he thinks, a more 
consistent use of the purely Attic dialect, while the second part is full of 
Ionisms. He therefore conjectures that the first part was written just 
after Xenophon’s return from the expedition of the Ten Thousand, 
c. 400 B.C., that the second part was first composed immediately after 
the peace of Antalcidas, 387 B.c., but was re-edited (a hypothesis which 
he is obliged to make to account for the somewhat indiscriminate use 
of Attic and Ionic forms) at the same time that the third part was 
written, i.e. subsequent to 362 B.C. 
1 Cf. ii. 2. 19 with iii. 5. 8 and vi. 5. 55; il. 4. 30 with iii. 5. 5, etc. 


§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA, I1 


Xenophon begins, but frequently throughout the first two 
books. Xenophon does not mention’ the Spartan offers of 
peace to the Athenians after the battle of Cyzicus, which, 
Diodorus says, were rejected through the influence of the 
‘demagogue Cleophon. The recovery of Pylos? by the Lace- 
daemonians, which the Athenians had held ever since.425 B.C., 
Xenophon represents as the mere expulsion of some runaway 
Helots ; and he does not say a word about the unsuccessful ex- 
pedition which the Athenians sent under Anytus to relieve their 
garrison in the place; nor about the recovery by the Megarians 
of their port of Nisaea at this same time, which had been in 
the possession of the Athenians since 424; nor yet about the 
battle, which shortly ensued, when the Athenians defeated the 
Megarians with great slaughter. Again, nothing is said about 
Alcibiades’ plundering expedition against Cyme, though accord- 
ing to Diodorus? it was one of the chief causes of the complaints 
against him, which brought about his downfall. Similarly‘, Xeno- 
phon does not tell how in the year of his admiralty Lysander 
organized the oligarchical clubs in Asiatic Greece and the 
Aegean, which, after the battle of Aegospotami, did such good 
service to the Lacedaemonian cause. In bk. ii.© Xenophon omits 
the selection of an oligarchical committee of Five at Athens, after 
the surrender of the city, who were called Ephors out of com- 
pliment to Sparta, and the struggle of some months between the 
oligarchs and democrats before the appointment of the Thirty, 
wherein, as a preliminary step, many of the generals, taxiarchs, 
and other important persons belonging to the democratic party 
were arrested. He omits, too, the third visit ® of Lysander to 
Athens in the autumn of 404 B.c., during which the Thirty were 
appointed, and also Lysander’s further exploits in the Aegean in 
the next six months; and, stranger still, he omits to notice 


’ Cf. i. 1. 23 with Diod. xiii. 52, Nepos Alc. 5. The Scholiast on 
Arist. Frogs 1580, speaks of a second similar application after Arginusae, 
which, if authentic, is also omitted by Xenophon. 

7 Cf. i. 2. 18 with Diod. xiii. 64, 65. 

° Cf. i. 5. 15 with Diod. xiii. 73. . 

* Cf. i. 6. 4, ii. a. 5 with Diod. xiii. 70, 104, 14. 10, and Plut. Lys. 5. 

5 Cf. ii. 3. 2 with Lysias xii. 43. 

® Cf. ii. 3. 2 with Lysias xiij. 15. 


12 INTRODUCTION. 


Alcibiades’ murder’ and the share that Lysander had in bringing 
it about. So, too, the cruel decree? of the Spartans, forbidding 
any Greek state to give shelter to the Athenian exiles, is passed 
over; and the ultimate fate* of the Thirty themselves is dis- 
- missed in a single unintelligible phrase. ‘ 
Obscurities due to the omission of some important link in the 
chain of events, or to excessive brevity, are even more numerous. 
It has been already shown how Xenophon presupposes a know- 
ledge of Thucydides, and that even then more has to be supplied 
to fill up the interval of six weeks between the two narratives ; 
but the same defects are noticeable throughout. For example, the 
newly-appointed generals coming from Syracuse are made to 
take over the'fleet at Miletus, which Xenophon had represented 
as built and still in dock at Antandros‘*. Thrasyllus was sent 
to Athens to procure reinforcements for the Athenian armament 
in the Hellespont ®; but when at last he is given them, he takes 
them, without a word of explanation, to Ionia. No reason is 
assigned for the Lacedaemonian ambassadors and Hermocrates 
attaching themselves to the Athenian ambassadors °, to whom 
Pharnabazus promised a safe conduct to the Persian king after 
the capture of Byzantium. These ambassadors at Gordium 
meet other Lacedaemonian ambassadors returning from the 
king *, who are introduced with the definite article, as if already 
mentioned. What finally became of Hermocrates, when he 
attempted to return to Syracuse, is never stated*®. Callicratidas 
at an important crisis sent ships to Sparta to procure supplies °, 
but nothing more is heard of them. Though-in 409 B.C. 
Chalcedon was not captured by the Athenians ", yet in 405 B.C. 
it appears in their possession. Theramenes” in his defence 
against Critias refers, as to a well-known fact, to the banishment 
of Thrasybulus, Anytus, and Alcibiades, although not a word 
has previously been said about them. After the death of 
- Theramenes the Thirty forbid all é£w rot xaraddyou to enter the 
city? ; but. it nowhere appears that they had been previously 


' Cf. ii. 3. 42 with Plut. Alc. 39 and Nep. Alc. to. 
2 Cf. ii. 4. 1 with Lysias, xii. 99 and Diod. xiv. 6. 
3 ii. 4. 43. * i.1. 26 and 31. 5 i. 1, 8 andi. 2. 2. 
pe be Ae "14a § i. 1. 27-29; 4. 7. * i. 6. 8,9. 
0 i, 3.8 andii, 2.1. ™ Cf. ii. 3.44.with 13,14, 21. = 1? ii. 4. 1. 


§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA. 13 


driven out. Finally the Ten in the Piraeus are introduced with 
the definite article, although never before mentioned’. 

Still more unaccountable is the curious inequality and dispro- 
portionate length with which many episodes are treated. Per- 
sonal details, as any one acquainted with the other writings of 
Xenophon might expect, are often given with considerable 
fulness, like the negotiations between Lysander and Cyrus?, 
the stratagem whereby Conon contrived to send to Athens news 
of his blockade in Mytilene®, the measures adopted by Eteonicus 
to quell the mutiny of his troops at Chios‘, the execution of 
Theramenes®, and the device of the oligarchical ‘engineer to 
hinder the advance of Thrasybulus’ siege engines®. On the other 
hand, many important events are dismissed in a few words, e.g. 
the expulsion of the Philo-Laconian party from Thasos-and the 
consequent exile of Pasippidas’ ; the capture of Selybria®; the 
joint attack of Thrasybulus and Alcibiades upon Phocaea®; the 
capture of Delphinium by the Spartans’; the accusation of 
Erasinides mept ris orparnyias after Arginusae !'; the ordovs in 
which the demagogue Cleophon was slain; the revolt of the _ 
Athenian allies and,the institution of Harmosts ghd Decarchies 
after the battle of Aegospotami 7; the’'amnesty of Patroclides 3%, 
by which he attempted to unite all parties at Athens to sustain 
the coming siege; the opposition offered to Theramenes’ pro- 
posals for peace with Sparta and the ultimate surrender of the 
city!*; the appointment of the Thirty at Athens ; the return of 
Thrasybulus and the democratic exiles, and their reorganization 
of the constitution **; and lastly, the annihilation of the Thirty 
at Eleusis, and the final amnesty of Thrasybulus’’. There is the 
same want of proportion in the speeches reported in these two 
books. While the speech of Alcibiades to his fleet before the 
battle of Cyzicus is dismissed in three lines", the speeches of 
Callicratidas to the discontented Lacedaemonians and to the 
Milesian assembly are given at some length’*. Similarly, only 
the bare subject of Alcibiades’ speeches before the Athenian 


1ii4.19. © 74.5. 2-7. 8 i. 6, I9~21. ¢ ii. 1. 1-4. 
5 ii, 3.56. ° ii. 4. 27. 7 i. 1. 32. 8 i, 3. 10. 9 i, 5. 11. 
ioe tee mae Pay ee ey Pes 12 11, 2.6; 2.53 3.6. 
8 ij, 2. 11. 4 ii, 2. 22-23. . 3 ii,3.2. ° 36 ii, 4. 39, 43. 


ii, 4. 43. WT, 14s 19 i, 6. 5, 8-11. 


14 INTRODUCTION. 


senate and assembly on his return from exile is indicated!; 
whereas the speeches of Euryptolemus in defence of the 
generals *, and of Critias and Theramenes 8, delivered on oceas- 
sions of certainly no greater importance, are reported at an 
extraordinary length—greater, indeed, than any in the five later 
books. | 

To account for these defects various theories, more or less 
plausible, but none very satisfactory, have been started. Some 
of them may be at once dismissed. Thus there is no evidence, 
either internal or external, to show that for these two books 
Xenophon used the materials already collected by Thucydides 
for the completion of his work. Such a hypothesis furnishes no 
explanation whatever why some events should have been put in 
and others left out, why some parts should have been elaborated 
and others not, especially as in the more elaborated portions, e.g. 
the long speeches of Euryptolemus, Critias, and Theramenes, 
there are no traces of Thucydides’ peculiarities of style. Still 
less defensible is the theory that in their present shape bks. 
i. il. are an epitome of a larger work of Xenophon’s own. For 
the characteristics of an epitome are to leave out unimportant 
details altogether, and to give a summary of the whole, laying 
most emphasis on the events of most importance. But in these 
books the case is frequently reversed. 

More worthy of examination is Siever’s‘ theory, that these 
defects of omission and commission are due to Xenophon’s par- 
tiality for Sparta and her constitution. In support of his view, he 
adduces the omission of the humiliating offers of peace through 
the mouthpiece of the ephor Endius after the defeat of Cyzicus ; 
‘of the crushing defeat of the Megarians just after they had suc- 
ceeded in recovering their port at Nisaea; of Agis’ unsuccessful 
sally from Decelea right up to the walls of Athens; of Lysander’s 
organization of the oligarchical clubs among the Asiatic Greeks; 
of Lysander’s cruel conduct towards the Milesians®; of the 
violent measures whereby Lysander set up the Thirty at Athens; 
of the part which Lysander played in procuring the assassination 
of Alcibiades—to which might be added the defective account 
Xenophon gives of the recoveryof Pylos by the Lacedaemonians, 

1 i. 4. 20. 71.7. 16-33. 3 ii. 3. 24-49. 

* Comment. Inst. de Xen. Hell. 5 Diod. xiii. 104. 


a 


- § 1. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA. 15 


and the mean motive that he attributes to king Pausanias for 
‘ checkmating Lysander’s design of extermination against the 
Athenian exiles under Thrasybulus’, But an almost equal 
number of omissions may be collected of incidents favourable to 
Sparta, and of insertions of things damaging to her reputation. 
Thus Xenophon never has a word of praise for Lysander, 
although he was the victor at Aegospotami, and the main cause 
of the downfall of Athens; and he evidently has a much greater 
admiration not only for the unsuccessful Callicratidas, between 
whose unselfish and patriotic behaviour and Lysander’s mean- 
ness and ambition a tacit contrast is manifestly implied ; but 
even for the hesitating Pausanias, who throughout showed him- 
self at heart the consistent friend of Athens. Again, Xenophon 
omits the recapture of Nisaea by the Megarians, and the capture 
of Chios, Iasos,and Séstos bythe Peloponnesians ?—all Lacedae- 
monian successes most damaging to Athens. On the other hand, 
he relates in full the disastrous defeats of the Peloponnesians at 
Abydos, Cyzicus, and Arginusae, and even gives verbatim Hippo- 
crates’ pitiable letter to the Spartan government. Neither does 
he gloze over the appointment of the ruffian Callibius to be har- 


most at Athens, or the enormities committed by the Thirty under’ 


his sanction and under the protection of the Spartan garrison. 
Moreover, to take the converse of the theory, it seems to be just 
as much a matter of accident what incidents Xenophon happens 
to insert or omit favourable or damaging to the reputation of 
Athens. Thus, on the one side he does not relate the nefarious 
intrigues of the -oligarchical party after the battle of Aegos- 
potami, their appointment of the Five Ephors, their arrest under 
various pretences of the leading democrats, and their base 
invitation of Lysander to. help them in suppressing the demo- 
cracy. But on the other side, though he does indeed relate how 
conscience-stricken the Athenians felt after the battle of Aegos- 
potami, fearing that now they themselves would suffer the fate 
' that they had inflicted on defenceless people like the Melians, 
yet he omits Cleophon’s opposition to Endius’ offer of peace 
after the battles of Cyzicus and Arginusae, and his still more 
foolish opposition to the comparatively mild conditions first 
offered by Sparta during the siege of Athens. Neither does he 


1 ii. 4. 29 pOovncas Avodvipy. 2 Diod. xiii. 65, 104, 106. 


we 


16 INTRODUCTION. 


record the failure of Anytus’ expedition to relieve Pylos, and the 
subsequent trial of that demagogue, when he only escaped 
condemnation by bribing his judges, this being, as Diodorus! 
tells us, the first known instance of corruption in an Athenian 
law court. . 

It would seem, therefore, that Siever’s theory is equally un- 
tenable with the others, and that Niebuhr’s criticism is quite 
justified, that, however Philo-Laconian Xenophon may show 
himself in the five later books, his narrative in bks. i., ii. is quite 
impartial. 

Later critics? have tried to discover traces of personal 
prejudice. Enough has already been said about Lysander, 
Callicratidas, and Pausanias, to dispose of the charge in their 
case ; but Xenophon’s picture of Alcibiades deserves more 
notice. It is true that he passes over some of Alcibiades’ most 
splendid exploits in.a word or two, like his capture of Selybria °, 
his escort of the Eleusinian procession by land, and his success- 
ful speeches in defence before the Athenian Senate and the 
Assembly. But, on the other hand, he passes still more briefly 
over his failure at Andros, his marauding expeditions from 
‘Samos in the winter of 408-407, for which the first complaints 
were brought against him at Athens, and his final disgrace and 
loss of his generalship; and he omits altogether the scandalous 
tales which Plutarch and other authorities delight to retail 
against him. Moreover, he even enlarges on the- favourable 
feelings with which far the larger section of the Athenian people 
welcomed him on his return, while he dismisses the murmurs of 
his enemies against him in a few scarcely intelligible lines; and 
he dwells at some length on the patriotic advice which Alcibiades 
gave the careless Athenian generals just before the battle of 
Aegospotami, suppressing the fact, which Diodorus * relates, 
that the would-be’ patriot, was at the same time actuated by 
motives of private interest. The defects, therefore, in his picture 
of Alcibiades are neither more nor less than those to be found 
in his sketches of other persons, like Hermocrates, Callicratidas, 
and Conon, with whom he was certainly more in sympathy. 

So far then the above examination has brought us only to 

1 xiii. 64. 4 Cf. Hertzberg, Alcibiades. 
> Cf. Plat. Alc. 30. * xiii. 105. 








§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA, 17 


the negative result, that there is no single key whereby to solve 
all the difficulties with which bks. i., ii. abound; and, indeed, 
that many of them admit of no explanation whatever. In some 
cases we can perhaps see that Xenophon’s fondness for personal 
anecdote or interest in the art of war has led him to narrate 
ttle incidents, in themselves of no importance, at dispropor- 
tionate length, but personal feelings either one way or the other 
do not help us to account for his omissions. Perhaps the most 
obvious theory to explain them is to regard them as due to want 
of personal knowledge ; but even on this theory we can see no 
particular reason why Xenophon’s treatment of events should 
be so uneven. For events occurring almost simultaneously at 
Athens, on the Hellespont, in Ionia, and elsewhere are related 
in one place with unaccountable fulness, in another with 
unaccountable brevity ; and no known incidents of his life at all 
explain the difference. 

Everything, therefore, would seem to point to Breitenbach’s 
conclusion, hesitating though it is, being the true one, that bks. 
i, li, are an attempt to complete the work of Thucydides, on the 
model of which they are manifestly planned, but are themselves 
for some reasons, which there is not evidence enough fully to 


explain, left unfinished ; and that this want of finish is apparent 


both in the defective compilation of the materials, in which so 
much has been shown to be wanting; in the unequal treatment 
of the several parts, some of which seem to be only provisionally 
introduced; and in the obvious imperfection of the chronological 
arrangement, which falls so far short of Thucydides’ system. 
None the less it remains true, that Xenophon is far the best 
and most reliable authority for the last six and a-half years of 
the Peloponnesian War, and for the following usurpation of the 
Thirty. The orators Andocides, Isocrates, and Lysias, and the 
historians Diodorus and Plutarch, when they deal with the 
same events, can be used only to supplement, not to correct, 
Xenophon’s narrative. Andocides and Isocrates indeed agree 
with Xenophon in all essentials, except that the latter always 
tends to exalt the character of Alcibiades, while Lysias was too 
violent a partisan of the democracy, and too much implicated in 
the events of the time for his authority to be preferred above 
that of Xenophon—e.g. in the picture he draws of Theramenes. 


B 


18 INTRODUCTION. 


Diodorus seems to have followed Theopompus for his history 
of the years 411-404, and Ephorus for that of the years 404-403. 
Hence so long as he follows the former, who, having been exiled 
from Chios for his support of Sparta, was a violent oligarch and 
philo-Laconian, his narrative is intensely hostile to the Athenian 
democracy. Only in the bare facts is there any agreement 
between him and Xenophon, and even in these there are most 
extraordinary discrepancies, many of them owing to Diodorus’ 
own carelessness in matters of chronology, which is so great that 
he often mixes up the events of different years'. At Athens Alci- 
biades and Theramenes are his heroes, and are painted in the 
brightest colours. Every incident tending to glorify Sparta and 
the Spartan constitution is exaggerated. Every incident to the 
contrary is carefully softened down or altogether suppressed. 
Ephorus, on the other hand, was an impartial and truth-loving 
historian, and appears himself to have made considerable use of 
Xenophon’s writings; and so with the change of the authority 
there is an evident change in the tone of Diodorus’ narratives. 

Plutarch, in his Lives of Alcibiades and Lysander, seems to 
have used both Ephorus and Theopompus, the former by 
preference. But his purpose being biographical, he aims rather 
to bring out the personal characteristics of his heroes by intro- 
ducing striking stories and anecdotes than to give a consecutive 
account of a series of events. Still his two biographies are often 
useful for filling up some of the worst gaps in Xenophon’s 
narrative: though wherever they differ in their accounts of the 
same events, Xenophon is always to be preferred. 

If, therefore, it is in contrast with Thucydides’ unequalled 
history of the first twenty and a-half years of the Peloponnesian 
War, that Xenophon’s account of its conclusion in Hellenics i., i1. 
appears sO meagre and unsatisfactory, it is in contrast with 
Diodorus and Plutarch that we are led to appreciate his merits. 
The later historian cares for history not for its own sake, but as 
an ‘opus oratorium ’ in which he can display his own surprising 
talents. The biographer, however charming and artistic the 
result, evidently uses the facts of history only ‘to point a moral 
and adorn a tale.’ Xenophon alone by his simple and unvar- 


1 For an exhaustive comparison of Xenophon and Diodorus’ chron- 
ology cf. Sievers, Xen. Hellenica. 


§ 2. CHRONOLOGY. 


1g 


nished style, by his evident impartiality and love of truth, even 
too by the very defects, which, however they may mar and 
disfigure his narrative, yet by their wholly fortuitous and 
unaccountable occurrence, tend rather to confirm its truth— 
leaves upon the mind of his reader the impression that his 


history, so far as it goes, is a history of facts. 


§ 2, XENOPHON’S CHRONOLOGY. 


CORRECT CHRONOLOGY. 





| | ae | A 


Theopompus 


411 

410 
409 
408 
407 
406 
405 
404 


Cie: War 
Q2-2 21st 
92-3 22nd 
92-4 23rd 
93°1 24th 
93°32 | 25th 
93°3 26th 
93-4 27th 
94-1 28th 


Archon. 


Glaucippus 
Diocles 
Euctemon 
Antigenes 
Callias 
Alexias 
Pythodorus 


Ephor. 


Misgolaidas 
Isias 

Aracus 
Evarchippus 
Pantacles 
Pityas 
Archytas 
Endius 


CHRONOLOGY OF THE HELLENICA. 


Euctemon 
Antigenes 


Callias 
Alexias 
Pythodorus 





Evarchippus 
Pantacles 


Pityas 
Archytas 
Endius 


\ 


20 INTRODUCTION. 


In the first two books of the Hellenica we find that not 
only is the beginning of each year of the war marked by 
such phrases as r@ 6€ GAdw éret, rod émidvros Erous, dpxopevou 
éapos', (where Xenophon is evidently following the system 
of Thucydides *), but in several passages additional accuracy 
is apparently given by the mention of Olympiads, the year 
of the war, or the names of the eponymous archons and ephors, 
and also by the notice of contemporary events in Persia and 
Sicily*®. But by all recent commentators such passages have 
been suspected, and in most cases with justice, to be inter- . 
polations, 

“It is true that both Herodotus and Thucydides occasionally 
give the names of Olympic victors: but Herodotus sometimes . 
simply styles a man ’OAvymovixns * as a general mark of distinc- 
tion without specifying any particular victory, and sometimes 
relates the victories, whether in the chariot race®, pentathlum °, 
or pancratium’, as incidents in the lives of eminent men like 
Miltiades the Athenian or Demaratus the Spartan; but in no 
case does he use an Olympiad to fix a date. Thucydides once ® 
like Herodotus uses the epithet OAvpmovixns as the mark of a 
distinguished man: twice ® however he gives the name of the 
victor to help fix the date, in the first instance- not specifying 
the contest, in the second taking the name of the victor in the 
pancratium ; but in both instances the celebration of the 
Olympic festival has an intimate connection with his general 
history of the war, and is not introduced merely as a chrono- 
logical datum. Moreover, Polybius!® expressly states that 
Timaeus, the Sicilian historian, (flor. 264 B.C.) was the first 
to use the Olympiad as a chronological era, for which, however, 
the list of the victors in the less famous stadium or foot-race 
was chosen. Nevertheless, ini. 2.1 the 23rd year of the war 
is called the 93rd Olympiad (really it was the third year of the 


g2nd): and in ii. 3. 1 the Olympiad is denoted by the name of 
the victor in the stadium. 


Oe a Ge es ae er a ee ie | Pie cop Co Ser 


4 v. 20. 8 i. 1.373 2.19; 5. 21 5 ii 2. 24. 
* v.47, 71. 5 vi. 36, 70; ix. 103, 125. 6 vi. g2; ix. 75. 
7 ix. 105. 8 i, 126. ® iii. 8; v. 49; cf. 50. 


10 xii, 12, 











- § 2. CHRONOLOGY, — a1 


Again, Herodotus ! once mentions the name of the eponymous 
archon at Athens to fix the date of one particular event, the 
invasion of Attica by the Persians ; and Thucydides ? sometimes 
gives the archon, ephor, and even the priestess of the Argive 
Hera, to mark some unusual occurrence ; but neither of them 
ever use these -official lists to distinguish successive years. 
Further, in two passages the names given in the text of the 
Hellenica are incorrect : for in ii. 3. 9, 10, a continuous list of 
twenty-nine ephors appears (probably inserted by a later hand), 
in which Pantacles immediately precedes Pityas, whereas Xeno- 
phon makes two whole years, if not three, elapse between i. 3. 1 
and 1.6.1, where Pantacles and Pityas are respectively men- 
tioned, to mark the beginning of the years*®; and exactly the 
same mistake is made with the archons. Evidently therefore 
the interpolator must have had before him complete lists of the . 
ephors and archons, must have known the nght names for the 
year 404, and then reckoned backwards from that year, but 
unfortunately overlooked the beginning of a new year in i. 4. 2, 
where no magistrates are mentioned, and also of the year the 
beginning of which Xenophon has omitted to mark at all. Of 
this however more below. 

In three passages * the numbers of the years of the Pelopon- 
nesian War occur. In the first the number 22 is right, and 
evidently depends on a comparison with Thuc. vili. 60, 109. 
The interpolator here, however, noticed the apxopevou rod €apos 
of i. 4. 2, though in that passage he did not insert the year of the 
war; so that, when Xenophon again resumes in 1.6.1 with a 
rp 0° émidvre €ret, he says that twenty-four years of warfare were 
now over. Really, however, the Peloponnesian War had con- 
tinued for twenty-five years ; and the interpolator was betrayed 
into this mistake, because Xenophon narrates the events of one 
year (407-406) ° without marking its beginning at all. So again 
in the third passage, instead of twenty-five years, it should be 
twenty-six. Thus the interpolator makes the war down to the 
surrender of Athens in the spring of 404 last only twenty-six 


1 viii. 51. 2 ii, 13 v. 19. 
> Cf. i. 4. 12. © 1, 3.14.6. 1513.7. 
5 Cf. note oni. 5. 11. 


22 . INTRODUCTION. 


years, whereas Thucydides’ distinctly states that it lasted almost 
exactly twenty-seven years, April 431 to April 404%. 

As for the notices of Persian and Sicilian history, though it is 
certain that the chronology of the Hellenica does not at all agree 
with that in Diodorus Siculus, yet, as that author in well-known 
cases is so exceedingly inexact in his dates, this disagreement does 
not amount to much of an argument against them. The pas- 
sages on Sicilian history, however, seem to be inconsistent with 
each other. For in i. 1. 37 Hannibal is said in 411 B.C. to 
have captured the cities of Selinus,and Himera; whereas in 
i. 2. 8, 10, 12 some Selinuntine ships are still found in 410 in the 
Aegean, acting as Peloponnesian allies, although Diodorus 
specially states® that they were recalled to Sicily before the 
capture of the city. Again, the capture of Acragas is related 
twice over, once as happening in the year 407, and the second 
time as happening in 405. Diodorus puts it in the year 406. 
There is a similar inconsistency in one of the two references to 
Persian history. For in ii. 1. 8, 9 an event is assigned to the 
year 406, which it appears from Diodorus cold only have hap- 
pened in the year 405. The other reference, i. 2. 19, states a 
mere fact, which ‘there is no means of confirming or denying. 
Inaccuracies of this kind, however, in a work left in so unfinished 
a state as bks. 1. il. of the Hellenica, hardly constitute a suffi- 
cient reason for bracketing them as spurious, especially when it 
is remembered that it was the custom of Thucydides, on whose 
system these books are evidently modelled, to insert at the end 
of each six months of his narrative such events as owing e.g. to 
their occurring in a different scene of the war, he could not 
weave into the main thread of his history. 

We are left, therefore, for our genuine chronological data, 
only with the phrases roi 8’ émdyros érovs x.r.A. which serve to 
mark the beginnings of the successive years of the war, supple- 
mented occasionally by additional marks of time like dpyopuévou 
XEtpavos, yeysoy érnet x.r.A.; and here we are met by a fresh 
difficulty. For Xenophon continues Thucydides from the point 
where he breaks off in his narrative of the 21st year of the war 


1 v. 20, 26. ? For the list of ephors in ii, 3. 9, Io, cf. note ad loc. 
3 xiii. 61. 











§ 2. CHRONOLOGY. 23 


in 411 B.C. Since the war ended in May 404, there ought to be 
seven such notices of the beginning of a new year: as a matter 
of fact, Xenophon gives only six ; somewhere or other therefore 
he has left one out, and the question arises, at what point? 
Dodwell, Schneider, and Weiske would begin a new year at 
i. 1. 11. But the events that Xenophon narrates between §§ 11 
and 37 aré all closely connected with each other, as well as by 
definite marks of time (cf. § 27 ef 3¢ r@ ypdvm Tovrea, § 32 Kara Tov 
Katpoy tovrov), and cannot well be spaced over a whole year. 
Herbst and others put the beginning of 407 B.C. ati. 4.8, but in 
that case it is hard to discover what were the movements of Alci- 
biades between the capture of Byzantium in 409 B.C. (cf. i. 3. 
21) and his arrival at Samos (i. 4. 8) in 407, and how he could 
have ventured to return to Athens, if he had known of the 
intrigues between Cyrus and Lysander, which began in 408 B.C., 
and which they took such careful measures to conceal (i. 4. 1-8). 
It is better, therefore, with Breitenbach', to suppose the 
omission to occur ati. 5. 11. For ini. 4. 21-23 Xenophon has 
brought down his narrative of Alcibiades’ doings in the winter 
of 408-407 to his operations round Samos as his headquarters, 
which may very well have lasted till March or April 407. And 
in i. 5. 1-10 he tells us how Lysander, with the assistance of 
Cyrus, was occupied in collecting and fitting out a new Pelopon- 
nesian fleet, for which the winter months would be specially 
appropriate. Then having brought down his narrative of the 
movements on either side to the same point of time, he resumes 
at §11 his account of their mutual operations against each . 
other, which would naturally show fresh activity at the beginning ° 
of spring. 
No sooner has Xenophon concluded the history of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War with the story of the surrender of Athens, than 
he abandons Thucydides’ system of chronology altogether. He 
does indeed mark the beginning of the year 404-403 with a r@ 
3’ émidvre €res*, but we are left to gather the respective times of 
the next year and a-half’s events from the accidental mention of 
an eclipse (ii. 3. 4), of the end of summer (ii. 3. 9), of snow (ii. 4. 3), 
of the eight months’ duration of the rule of the Thirty (ii. 3. 21), 


1 Jahrbuch f. Phil. und Pad. 1872. ee | a ae 


24 INTRODUCTION. 


and of ripe fruit (ii. 4.25). In fact, in this section of the 
book, Xenophon begins the practice, which he consistently 
follows throughout the rest of the Hellenica, of grouping events 
together, not according to the times at which ey happened, 
but according to their causal connection. 


§ 3. INTERNAL HISTORY OF ATHENS, 411-403 B.C. 


After the expulsion of the Four Hundred in the spring of 

1July 411 411 B.C. the Athenian constitution became a modi- 
B.C. to June fied democracy, which Thucydides? declares to 

410 B.C. have been the best government that the Athenians 
ever enjoyed within his memory. The two leading features were 
the abolition of all paid offices of whatever kind, and the limitation 
of the full citizenship to such Athenians as could furnish them- 
selves with arms at their own expense. It was thus the nearest 
approach that we read of in Greek history to Aristotle’s ideal 
moXcreia ®, or model democracy, being based chiefly on the 
middle class, and combining in itself the best elements of 
oligarchy and democracy. 

But though this constitution had already received* the ap- 
proval of Alcibiades, and the Assembly had actually passed 
a decree for his recall, the breach still remained open between 
the Athenians in the city and the Athenians on board the fleet. 
The latter could not have been less than 10,000 in number, 
and had just unmistakeably shown their democratical zeal in 
suppressing the simultaneous conspiracy of the oligarchical 
party in their midst®: in fact, it was not until the return of 
Alcibiades three years later, in 408, that this breach was finally 
healed. Till then the city and the fleet were almost as much 
separated as two independent states ; the city annually elected 
the usual number of ten generals; the fleet still retained at its 
head Alcibiades, Thrasybulus, Thrasyllus, and apparently the 


1 The Athenian year began with the 1st of Hecatombaeon (c. the 
middle of July), when the magistrates entered upon their offices. 

? vili. 97. 8 Ar. Pol..iv. 8. 3. 

4 Thue, viii. 86, 97. 5 Thuc. viii. 75, 76. 











§ 3. INTERNAL HISTORY. 25 


other generals whom they had chosen at the time of the revo- 
lution’. Theramenes and Thrasyllus alone acted as a sort of 
go-betweens: for the former, being sent out by the city in 411 to 
try to prevent the Boeotians and Euboeans from building a 
dam across the Euripus, and failing in that object, finally joined 
Alcibiades at the Hellespont, and did not return to Athens till 
three years afterwards: while the latter, after the victory at 
Abydos in the ,autumn of 411, was despatched to Athens for 
reinforcements. 

When at last these two divisions of the Athenian pegple 
again united, the union was due on the one side to a return 
at Athens, more or less complete, to the old extreme form of 
democracy, and on the other to the extraordinary successes 
of the vaurixés dyAos under the command of Alcibiades. It is 
these changes and their connection with each other that must 
now be traced. 

At the same time that the Four Hundred had been deposed, 
Thucydides tells us *, a board of Nomothetae had been appointed 
with the object, if we may argue from the analogous appointment 
after the suppression of the Thirty in 403 *, of adapting‘the old 
Solonian laws to the new constitution. Four months were 
assigned them for their work. But it would appear that nothing 
was really done: for six years afterwards Nicomachus, one of 
their number and called dvaypade’s trav vopwy*, had not yet 
sent In an account of his office, and c. 399 B:C. he was accused 
of having taken bribes to illegally alter and otherwise tamper 
with the special laws assigned to him for revision®. Thus the 
new constitution was never really put upon a permanent legal 
footing, and party feeling, which had shown itself in the con- 
demnation of the most extreme of the oligarchical leaders, like 
Antiphon and Archeptolemus, was still too much excited to 
allow things to remain long as they were. In the early autumn | 
of 411 B.C. ® the Athenians at home had been greatly encouraged 
by the news of their partial success at Cynossema. In the 
winter the general Thrasyllus, who had been one of the demo- 
cratical leaders at Samos, had arrived at Athens with the 

1 Thue. viii. 76. 2 viii. 97. 

8 Cp. Andocides, Myst. § 83. * Lysias, xxx. §§ 2, 11, 28. 

5 Cp. Lysias 1. c. 6 Thuc. viii. 106. 


26 INTRODUCTION. 


tidings of a fresh victory at Abydos, and with a request for 

July 410 ‘reinforcements for the fleet. And in the spring 
B.C. to June of 410 B.C. Alcibiades totally annihilated the 

408 B.C. Peloponnesian fleet under Mindarus at Cyzicus. 
The completeness of his victory was vividly cdnfirmed by the 
despatch written by Hippocrates, Mindarus’ secretary, to the 
Spartan government for immediate help, which was accidentally 
captured and brought to Athens. 

Once more the democratical party became active and powerful. 
For when the Spartans’, in dismay at their defeat, sent Endius 
at the head of an embassy to offer as terms of peace, that both 
parties should accept the status quo, that the Peloponnesians 
would withdraw their garrison from Decelea, if the Athenians 
would withdraw theirs from Pylos, and that an exchange of 
prisoners should be arranged, the Assembly, notwithstanding 
the efforts of the émetuxéorarot, voted their rejection on the 
motion of the demagogue Cleophon. ‘The Athenians,’ says 
Diodorus, ‘excited by their recent good fortune, thought that 
with their forces under the leadership of Alcibiades they would 
soon recover their old supremacy.’ 

Nor were. their hopes entirely unfounded; for the victory 
at Cyzicus meant much more than the annihilation of the 
Peloponnesian fleet. It meant relief from the financial distress, 
which had prevailed at Athens ever since the Sicilian disaster, 
and more especially since the loss of Euboea. For immediately 
after the battle Alcibiades set up a custom house on the Bos- 
porus to exact toll from all passing ships; once again some 
of the Hellespontine and Thracian cities began to pay tribute ; 
and once again the corn ships sailed as of old into Piraeus?. 
Money had been the basis of the Periclean democracy, and 
now money opened the way for a return to it. The fleet at the 
_Hellespont maintained itself by marauding expeditions, and cost’ 
the home government nothing. Thus the President of the Trea- 
sury for the year was able to devote as much as twenty-three 
talents towards the expenses of certain sacrifices and festivals 
and of the d:f8edia®, or Theoric fund, which was distributed 
among the poorer citizens to enable them to attend the theatre 
and shows, and which seems to have been the first of the 


1 Diod. xiii. 52, 53. 7 i. 1. 35. $C. I. A. i, 188. 





§ 3. INTERNAL HISTORY. 27 


distributions of public money to be restored. As the revenue 
continued to improve, the old system of payment for all offices 
little by little came once more into force, though the several 
dates of its reinstitution cannot be ascertained. Aristophanes 
in the Frogs', which was exhibited in 405 B.C., complains of 
the huge sums swallowed up by the diaorixds puoOds, showing 
that by: that time the change was complete. 

There is equal difficulty in tracing the steps, whereby the 
restrictions on citizenship imposed after the dissolution of the 
Four Hundred, were gradually removed. Payment for public 
services evidently meant the readmission of the poorer citizens 
to the full discharge of all civic duties. But the means whereby 
this was brought about are unknown. All we can say is that 
Xenophon describes the Athenians as meeting for the trial of 
the generals after Arginusae in 406 B.C., mavras xara gvAds, 
as if by that time none were excluded from the Assembly. 

One constitutional change can however be referred with cer- 
tainty to this year on the authority of the historian Philochorus?. 
The Senators, like the dicasts, henceforward were to sit in ten 
divisions denoted by the first ten letters of the alphabet. The 
reason of this measure is not stated, but in all probability it was 
directed against the members of the oligarchical clubs*, who 
were wont to sit together, and thus by their united action to 
acquire an influence totally disproportionate to their numbers *. 
Gilbert ® has ingeniously conjectured, that these democratical 
changes were carried through by a board of ovyypadeis, on the 
ground that Demophantus, the proposer of a decree of which 
more.-will be said hereafter, ovvéypawev, and not, as usual, etzev ; 
and that an inscription® of this year mentions ovyypageis, though 
it does not explain the nature of their office ; and further that on 
the analogy of Thucydides (viii. 67), when Pisander proposed to 
appoint ten fvyypadeis avroxpdropes and of Xenophon (Hell. 
ii. 3. 2), when the Thirty were chosen, of rovs rarpious vépous 


’ 141 sq., 1466 sq. 7 Miiller, Fragm. i. 403. 

5 Cp. Thuc. viii. 66, esp. vi. 13. 

* A practice set on foot by Thucydides, son of Melesias ; see Plut. 
Pericles c. 11. 

5 Beitr. z. Inn. Gesch. Athens, p. 341 sqq. 

$C.1,A.i. 58. | 





28 INTRODUCTION. 


ovyypdover, it may very well be argued that they were extra- 
ordinary magistrates chosen to draw up a new constitution, 
and this time in a democratical direction, 

Two documents of this year illustrate still farther the growing 
power of the democrats: The first is the above-mentioned 
Psephism of Demophantus, preserved in Andocides’ speech 
on the Mysteries’, which decreed that all Athenians, both in 
the city and in the fleet, should swear to hold as a public 
enemy, who might lawfully be put to death, any one who should 
attempt to overthrow the democracy, or who should hold any 
office after the democracy had been overthrown. This oath 
was to be taken just before the Great Dionysia in the spring 
of 409 B.C. and finds its parallel in the oath sworn to by the Athe- 
nian democrats at Samos in 411 B.c.? The second is a psephism 
proposed by Erasinides *, who was afterwards one of the generals 
at the battle of Arginusae, that Thrasybulus‘*, one of the assas- 
sins of the oligarch Phrynichus, should be rewarded with a 
golden crown and the gift of citizenship, and that a proclamation 
to that effect should be made at the same Dionysia. Moreover 
at the same time the prosecutions against those implicated in 
the conspiracy of the Four Hundred, which had been suffered 
to lapse after the punishment of the worst offenders, seem to 
have been revived, and to have gone on with more or less 
vigour until the Amnesty of Patroclides in 405 B.c. Not only 
were individuals attacked, but whole classes, like the soldiers 
who had supported the Four Hundred, were punished with 
partial disfranchisement®, so that e.g. it was made unlawful 
for them to speak in the Assembly, or to become members of 
the Senate. Lysias® says, that it was these prosecutions that 
ruined the democracy; for that numerous sycophants accused 
innocent persons for the sake of their wealth, while they left 
the guilty untouched, if only they were sufficiently bribed. 

Meanwhile Alcibiades had pursued a career of unbroken 


1 Andoc. Myst. § 96sqq. Gilbert, Gesch. Ath., p. 344, proves against 
Droysen and Herbert that this decree belongs to the period after the 
Dissolution of the Four Hundred, and not to that after the expulsion of 
the Thirty. Cp. Grote, vil. 321. 

2 Thue. viii. 75. °C. 1 A. i. 59. * Cf. Thuc. viii. 92. 

5 Andoc. Myst. § 75 sq. ® Or. xxv. 14, 15. 





§ 3. ZNTERNAL HISTORY. 29 


success on the Hellespont and Bosporus. In the summer 
of 410 he had been joined by Thrasyllus at the - Hellespont 
with a considerable reinfotcement from Athens, and the two 
generals combined to defeat the satrap Pharnabazus, first at 
Abydos, and then at Chalcedon, after which he was reduced 
to come to terms and to submit to see Chalcedon once more 
pay tribute to Athens. These successes were july 409 

quickly followed by the capture of Selybria and B.C. to June 
Byzantium. On the other side the Athenians 408 B.C. 

had indeed to set the loss of Pylos in Messenia, and of Nisaea, 
the port of Megara—losses serious in themselves, but with 
little effect upon the revenue. Anytus, the demagogue, who 
had been despatched to relieve the former place was, on his 
return, accused of treachery, and only escaped, it was said, 
by bribing his judges'. In the autumn of 409 B.C., therefore, 
Athens had regained the whole of the Thracian and Hellespon- 
tine provinces of her old empire, besides many of the islands 
in the northern Aegean. The Peloponnesian fleet had been 
annihilated. Pharnabazus, who had so long and so ably sup- 
ported the Spartan cause, had been forced to consent to an 
armistice, and to promise a safe escort for an Athenian embassy 
to the Persian King. And all this had been mainly due to 
the courage and capacity of a single man, and him an exile; 
for Alcibiades had never availed himself of the permission to 
return home granted him in 411 B.c.?_ So far indeed he had 
acted almost as a sovereign prince. Much still however re- 
mained to be done: Euboea and most of Ionia were still in 
open revolt. Before attempting their reconquest, Alcibiades 
seems now to have felt that a return to Athens was necessary 
for him, if ever there was to be a complete reunion between 
the city and the army. In the spring of 408, therefore, he 
sailed with alI his ships to Samos: thence he despatched his 
friends and colleagues Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Piraeus 
with all the spoils of war and captured vessels to prepare the 
way for his reception, while he himself sailed with the remainder 
of the fleet to Caria, to collect still more money. The Athenians 
at home were by this time just as ready on their side to welcome 
him, and even before the arrival of Thrasyllus and Theramenes 


1 Diod. xiii. 64, 65. 4 Thuc. viii. 97. 


30 INTRODUCTION. 


had chosen among the generals for the following year, Alci- 
biades, Thrasybulus, and Conon. The news of his election 
reached Alcibiades at Gythium in’ Laconia, whither he had 
sailed from Caria, and he at once set out for Piraeus, which — 
he entered on the day of the Plynteria (June), when the shrine 
of the goddess Athena was covered with a veil. Arrived in 
the harbour, even now he hesitated to land, so suspicious was 
he of the real feelings of the people towards him; and it 
was not until he had seen Euryptolemus and other relatives 
among the crowd that had assembled to meet him, that he 
ventured to set foot on shore. Then his partizans closed round 
him so as to form a sort of body-guard, and escorted him in 
their midst in triumphal procession from Piraeus to Athens. 

In the city opinion was still much divided’: some said, that 
he had been the victim of the intrigues of his enemies, who 
had plotted against him and procured his exile in order to make 
room for their own ambitious schemes; others maintained that 
he had been the real cause of all the Athenian misfortunes in 
the past, and would be just as dangerous in the future. 

But for the moment Alcibiades, with his marvellous person- 
ality, carried all before him. The effect of his speeches in his 
own defence before the senate and assembly’, was such that 
none dared raise a voice against him. It was at once decreed, 
that the column set up to record his condemnation in 415 B.c. 
should be cast into the sea, that his goods should be restored to 
him, and that the curse which the Eumolpidae had pronounced 

July 408 against him should be recalled. He himself was 
B.C. to June proclaimed orparnyés attoxparwp by sea and land, 

407 B.C. as the only man able to restore Athens to her 
former power. The rich hoped to find in him a strong opponent 
to the ever-increasing encroachments of the extreme democrats. 
The poor saw in him a champion, who would relieve them of 
their poverty, and whom they would be glad to support, even 
though he should assume to himself the rights of sovereign 
power and make himself tyrant of Athens*, For the moment 
his enemies were silenced, although they continued, as events 
soon showed, as active as ever in their intrigues against him. 

1 i. 4. 13-17. 2 Diod. xiii. 69. 
5 Plut. Alc. 35; Diod. xiii. 69. 











§ 3. INTERNAL HISTORY. 31 


The demagogues seem to have been especially bitter, so com- 
pletely were they overshadowed in the eyes of the people by 
their new rival for popular favour. 

It was ominous too that Theodorus the high priest, in re- 
moving the. old curse had said, that for his part he had never 
denounced any curse against him, if he had done no injury 
to the commonwealth: while many of the pious and superstitious 
noted with foreboding, that Alcibiades had landed on the Plyn- 
teria, the unluckiest day in the whole year. 

Meanwhile Alcibiades was occupied in fitting out a new fleet 
of 100 vessels, with the money that he had himself brought into 
the treasury. He chose Adimantus and Aristocrates, apparently 
out of the already elected generals for the year, to be his 
colleagues in the command’. But before he sailed, hoping once 
for all to quiet the religious fears of the Athenians, as well as 
to assure them of his military prowess, he escorted with all 
his forces the annual procession along the Sacred Way to 
Eleusis, which ever since the fortification of Decelea by the 
Peloponnesians, had been obliged to go by sea, King Agis now 
venturing to offer no opposition. 

At last in October all was ready for his departure, for which 
none were more eager than his enemies; some, according to 
Plutarch, because they feared that he would soon make himself 
tyrant ; others, we may certainly suppose, because they wanted a 
clear field left them in which to prosecute their own schemes. 

But during the four months that Alcibiades had stayed in 
Athens, an entire change had come over the aspect of affairs 
in Asia. The able and energetic Lysander had succeeded 

‘the incapable Cratesippidas as admiral of the Spartan fleet ; 
and Cyrus, the younger son of King Darius, had taken the 
place of the vacillating Tissaphernes as Satrap of Sardis, and 
had announced his intention of supporting the Peloponnesians 
with money and by all means in his power, even persuading 
. Pharnabazus, notwithstanding his solemn promises, to hinder 
the Athenian envoys from proceeding to the Persain coast ?. 
Events soon proved the wisdom of Alcibiades’ enemies in 
hastening his departure. His attack on the little island of 
Andros was only partially successful. Arrived at Samos, he 
1 Xen. Hell. i. 4. 22; Diod. xiii. 69. 2 i. 4.7. 


32 INTRODUCTION. 


tried in vain to draw Lysander out of the harbour at Ephesus 
to a general engagement. His overtures to Cyrus through the 
_ mouthpiece of Tissaphernes were rejected with scorn. Money 
and supplies soon ran short, and he was obliged to scour the 
neighbouring coasts on marauding expeditions, making in his 
requisitions, it would seem, but little distinction between friend 
and foe. To crown all, his lieutenant Antiochus, in defiance 
of his strict orders, ventured on a general engagement during his 
absence at Phocaea, and suffered a.defeat at Notium ; and do 
what he could, Alcibiades could not induce Lysander to give him 
an opportunity for revenge. Disappointed in their unreasonable 
expectations of a speedy conquest of Chios and even of all 
Ionia, the Athenians both at home and on board the fleet 
were now as vehement in their denunciations of Alcibiades 
as but shortly before they had been in his praises. All com- 
plaints against his conduct were eagerly listened to; and when 
Thrasybulus, the son of Thrason, (not to be confused with the 
more famous Thrasybulus, the general), returned from the camp 
to Athens *, and accused him of maladministration, of treason- 
able intrigues with Persia and the Peloponnesians, and of 
building forts of his own, like a sovereign prince, in Thrace ?, 
the people at once suspended Alcibiades from his command, © 
ordered his colleague Condn to take his place, and in the 
annual elections, which happened to occur just at the same 
time, chose ten new generals, among whom Alcibiades was no 
longer one*. Alcibiades himself, finding that he was equally 
unpopular with his own troops, did not wait to hear the result 
of the accusations against him at home, but retired to his forts 
in the Thracian Chersonese. 
At this juncture democrats of all shades seem to have com- 
July 407 bined to support the constitution, if we may judge 
B.C. to June from the list of the new generals: for among 
406 B.C. them Thrasyllus, Leon, and Diomedon ‘had all 
taken a prominent part in the counter movement against 


1 Gilbert refers a statement of Himerius (ap. Phat. Bibl. 377) to this 
affair: KAcopaw ’AAuBiddnv typddero, and sees in it a formal ypagp?) 
mposocias. Cobet refers it to the year 415 B.C. 

2 Diod. xiii. 73; Plut. Alc. 36. 

$ Plut. Lys. v; Nep. Alc. 7; Just. v. 5. 4; Lysias xiv. 38. 





§ 3. INTERNAL HISTOR ¥. 33 


fhe oligatchs at Samos, in 411 B.C.'; Erasinides? had pro- 
posed the decree to crown the. assassin of Phrynichus 
the oligarch ; Pericles was the son of the great Pericles and 
Aspasia; while Conon seems rather to have succeded Nicias in’ 
the leadership of the more moderate party. The year was one 
of great financial distress, due to the difficulty of maintaining 
Conon’s large fleet of 100 vessels, and to the Peloponnesians 
under the admiral Callicratidas once more taking the offensive 
by sea, and so cutting off the sources of Athenian revenue. To 
meet the deficiency all the gold in the Acropolis was coined 
into money®. Still, when the news reached Athens that Conon 
with all his fleet was blockaded at Mitylene, within thirty days 
the Athenians fitted out a fleet. of 110 vessels, making all the 
inhabitants of Attica, rich and poor, slave and free, serve alike 
on board. About July, 406, the two fleets met off the islands of 
Arginusae, and the Athenians under‘the command of eight of 
their ten generals gained a complete victory over the Pelopon- 
nesians, Cailicratidas himself perishing in the fight. In the 
ordinary course of things such a victory would have sufficed to 
insure for some time the political power of the successful 
generals. But unfortunatelyin the moment of victory the generals 
had neglected both to rescue the survivors clinging to the wrecks 
of the vessels, which had been disabled in the battle, and to 
bury the corpses of the dead. The news of this neglect excited 
great indignation among the Athenians at home. jyly 406 
A summons was immediately issued for their B.C. to June 
recall. Thereupon two of their number retired 4095 B.C. 
into voluntary exile: the remaining six returned to Athens, 
were hastily condemned almost without any form of trial, and 
all alike executed. 

Although there seems to be no eiaaaee for supposing the 
condemnation of the generals to have been due to an oligar- 
chical conspiracy, its effect, no doubt, was to produce chaos once 
more among the political parties at Athens. Little indeed can 
be inferred from the list of the new generals, as they must have 
been elected just before the battle of Arginusae, which was - 
apparently fought in June, while the trial cannot have taken 

1 Thue. viii. 73. 9 CTA. i 89. 
* Arist. Frogs 720; Philoch. Frag. 120. 
C 


34 INTRODUCTION. 


place till November. The democrats at any rate still clung to 
their old war policy ; and Cleophon was again successful in 
procuring the rejection of a peace, which the Lacedaemonians 
offered about this time on the same terms as before '—a fact 
which shows that the power of the demagogues was still as 
great as ever. Many, on the other hand, began to repent of 
their recent dismissal of Alcibiades, and even to advocate his 
immediate recall. The financial distress was greater than 
ever, and to meet it an extraordinary board of magistrates, 
called Poristae®, seems to have been appointed to consider ways 
and means. The fleet at Samos, paralyzed by the proceedings 
taken against its late generals at Athens, never followed up the 
results of its victory, though now commanded by the skilful 
Conon ; and was soon unable to support itself by marauding 
expeditions, being entirely occupied in watching the move- 
ments of the enemy’s fleet. For the Peloponnesians, after their 
disaster, had procured from the Spartan government the re- 
storation of Lysander to the command; and. he in the spring 
of 405 had completely restored its efficiency, being backed up, 
as before, by Persian gold. 

It was probably about this time that the Athenians began to 
repent of their harsh treatment of the generals, who had won 


for them the victory of Arginusae: for in the spring elections - 


Theramenes, who had taken the leading part in the prosecu- 
tion, was rejected on the doxipacia after he had been actually - 


chosen general, because he did not seem to be edvous ro 


winOe*; and at the same time complaints seem to have been 
brought before the assembly against those individuals, especially 
Callixenus, who had deceived the people in the trial. The 
assembly listened favourably to the complaints, and decreed 


that the persons accused should be bound over to stand 


their trial, but amid the internal confusions of the following 
year they all escaped. It is remarkable that Theramenes was 
not included in the accusation. 


1 Aristotle apud Schol. on Arist. Frogs 1532. Grote, viii. 1, throws 
doubt on this embassy. : 
* Arist. Frogs 1500 seqq. 
> Arist. Frogs. 1505, cf. Gilbert. Gesch. Athens, p. 387. 
* Lysias xiii. 13. 





§ 3. INTERNAL HISTORY. . 35 


Probably just about the time that the newly elected generals 
entered upon their office, of whom only Strom- jyty 405 
bichides, Dionysodorus, and Calliades are known B.C. to June 
by name, all three being stout democrats, the 404 B.C. 
tidings’ of the annihilation of the fleet at Aegospotami must have 
reached Atlrens'. The citizens were at first stunned by the 
news, reflecting that at last the misery that they had inflicted , 
on less powerful states, was about to return on their own 
heads*. But next day the assembly met and resolved to block 
up two of the three harbours at Piraeus, and to prepare 
the city for a siege. Really kittle could be done: for the 
Athenians had no fleet, and the corn supply was entirely cut off 
now that the Hellespont, as well as Euboea, was lost, and the 
Peloponnesians still harried the country from Decelea. Five 
months, however, passed before the appearance of the dreaded 
Peloponnesian fleet. Lysander was employed in the interval in 
receiving the submission of the Athenian allies, and in sending 
all the Athenian citizens and cleruchs, whom he captured, back 
to Athens in erder to increase the number of mouths to be fed on 
the ever diminishing supply of corn. At last in November he ap- 
peared and blockaded Piraeus at the same time, that the two 
Spartan kings Agis and Pausanias advanced with the entire Pelo- 
ponnesian forces close up to the city walls. Within the city, asa 
last despairing measure, the democrats carried a proposal made 
by Patroclides to grant an amnesty to all disfranchised citizens, 
more especially those who had suffered partial disfranchise- 
ment for the part they had taken in the Revolution of the Four 
Hundred *®. The oligarchs, who saw that their day of power 
would soon and certainly come with the surrender of the city, 
seem at the time to have remained quiet. But the forces that 
the Athenians could muster, even with the citizens all thus 
united, were so obviously incapable of offering a successful 
resistance, that so early as December, when the corn supply 
had completely failed, envoys were sent to Agis with offers of 
peace on condition that. the Athenians became allies of the 


1 Mommeen (Chronologie) dates it in the month Scirophorion (June 
to July). 
2 ii, 2. 3. 
* Andoc. Myst. § 73 seqq. 
C2 


36 INTRODUCTION. 


Lacedaemonians, and retained Piraeus and the Long Walls. 
Agis referred the envoys to the Ephors at Sparta, who alone, 
he said, had powers to conclude a treaty. But when they 
‘reached Sellasia on the Lacedaemonian frontier, the Ephors, 
on hearing the terms they had to offer, sent them back with an 
injunction not to return until the Athenians had come to a 
better decision. It appears however from the sequel of Xeno- 
phon’s narrative’, that they were at the same time informed, 
that a peace might be concluded if the Athenians would con- 
sent to the demolition of ten stadia of their Long Walls. For, 
when on their return the envoys announced before the Senate 
the result of their mission, Archestratus was arrested for 
proposing submission to this condition, and at the same time 
Cleophon carried a decree in the Assembly forbidding any 
such proposal for the future on pain of death 3, 

At this crisis Theramenes came forward and promised, that 
if the people would send him to Lysander, he would at least 
procure certain information as to whether in requiring the 
demolition of the Long Walls the Lacedaemonians meant the 
utter enslavement of Athens, or only a guarantee of Athenian 
good faith. Theramenes was accordingly despatched, but in- 
stead of returning at once with the necessary information, he 
stayed with Lysander for more than three months, waiting for 
the moment when the Athenians would be compelled by famine 
to accept any terms whatsoever. In the fourth month he 
returned, saying that he had been detained by Lysander, who 
had at last advised him to apply to the Ephors, as they alone 
had power to conclude a peace. Meantime Cleophon had been 
put to death on a false charge of failure in his military duties °, 
brought against him by the oligarchical conspirators, who were 
once again secretly active: and now hunger silenced all further 
opposition. Theramenes therefore and nine others were chosen 
to go to Sparta as ambassadors with full powers. At Sellasia 
the ten new ambassadors were again stopped by the Ephors; . 
but when they said that they were invested with full powers, 
they were invited to attend a conference of the Peloponnesian 
confederates at Sparta, which had been summoned to consider ° 


1 ii, 2. 14, 15. 3 Lysias xiii. 8; Aeschin. F. L. 76. 
> Lysias xiii. 15 ; cf. Xen. ii. 7. 35. 


§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS, 37 


the ‘fate of Athens. Here the Thebans and Corinthians ad- 
vocated the total extirpation of the Athenian name; but the 
Lacedaemonians, guided, it would appear’, rather by motives 
of self-interest than the patriotic. sentiments, which they openly 
professed, refused to allow a city, which had wrought so much 
for Greek freedom in the past, to be wiped out of the map of 
Greece, and decided to offer terms, far harder indeed than 
those offered four months earlier, but reasonable under the 
circumstances. The terms were to be that the Athenians 
should demolish their Long Walls and their arsenal at Piraeus, 
that they should resign all their foreign possessions, and confine 
themselves to their Attic territory, that they should readmit 
all their exiles, and become the allies of Sparta, recognizing the 
same friends and enemies and following her leadership by land 
and sea. The number of ships, which they were to be allowed 
to keep, was left to the discretion of Lysander ?. 

The day after their return to Athens, Theramenes, as spokes- 
man of the ambassadors, recited the Lacedaemonian conditions, 
and ‘proposed their acceptance. Even now a few, headed by 
Cleomenes, one of the younger demagogues, raised some op- 
position, but the prevailing distress was too great for any.. 
farther delay*. The peace was accepted, and on the 16th of 
Munychion (c. April) Lysander, coming from Samos, sailed 
into Piraeus along with many of the Athenian exiles. All the 
ships left in the dockyards were handed over to him, save 
twelve, which he permitted the Athenians to retain. Then his 
troops occupied the fortifications, and began the destruction of 
Piraeus and the Long Walls. 

Thus ended the Peloponnesian War almost exactly twenty- 
seven years after its first outbreak in April 431 B.C. 


§ 4. THE TRIAL OF THE GENERALS AFTER ARGINUSAE. 


For this incident in Athenian history Xenophon, as being 
himself contemporary with the event, is undoubtedly the chief 
and the best authority. His account seems to be a simple and 


1 Cf. ii. 2. 20 with ii. 3. 41. 
e ? ii. 2. 20, Diod. xiii. 107. Plut. Lys. 14. 
3 Cf. Lysias xiii. 13. 


38 INTRODUCTION. 


impartial statement of the facts of the trial, and the points of 
_ obscurity are apparently due, not to any wilful perversions, but to 

omissions as to questions of fact and of law, which it is difficult 

to supplement from any other sources. Diodorus (flor. 15 B.C.) 

gives only a meagre narrative of the trial, based on Theopompus 

(flor. 333 B.C.), and evidently here, as in other passages, holds a 

brief in favour of Theramenes, though he condemns the treatment 

of the generals. Aristophanes’ Frogs, exhibited in the year 405 

B. C., shows us somewhat of the prevailing feeling at the time in 
Athens, and more especially as to the part played by Thera- 

menes, which would seem to have incurred the general dis- 

pleasure of the people. Plato (Apology, c. 32) and Xenophon 

(Memorabilia, i. 1. 18, iv. 4. 2) more fully describe the bold 

resistance offered by Socrates to the unconstitutional demands 

of the Assembly. It may therefore be gathered that the whole 

literary opinion of the day strongly disapproved the condemna- 

tion of the generals. 

In his own narrative (i.6) Xenophon gives a very brief 
summary of events. In the battle at Arginusae the Athenians, 
he tells us, lost twenty-five ships, crews and all, except a few 
. survivors, who made their way to shore. The generals in 
command had ordered the trierarchs Theramenes and Thrasy- 
bulus and some of the taxiarchs, with forty-seven ships, 
to rescue those still clinging to the wrecks, while they 
themselves sailed to Mytilene against Eteonicus. But a great 
storm! arose and prevented the rescue, and also, it would seem, 
their own passage across to Mytilene. Euryptolemus, however, 
in the course of his speech ” adds several details. Immediately 


1 Grote (vii. 430) points out that immediately after the battle the 
Peloponnesian despatch boat brought the news of Callicratidas’ defeat to 
Eteonicus at Mytilene, apparently without any difficulty, although its 
course was N.W.; and that afterwards the storm was not sufficient to 
stop the same boat from sailing out of the harbour and in again once 
more, nor yet to prevent Eteonicus’ fleet from sailing S.W. to Chios: in 
fact the wind was o¥pios, which means not ‘fair,’ but ‘ favourable’: 
though it is true that Conon at the same time thought it more prudent to 
wait till the wind was edd:airepos before he started in pursuit. Probably 
therefore it blew a strong gale from the N. or N.E. Cf. A heramenes, 
speech (ii. 3. 35) and Diodorus (xiii. 100). 


7 1.7.17, 29. 


§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 39 


after the battle, he says, the Athenian fleet returned to the 
Arginusae islands, and there the generals held a council of war. 
Diomedon wished to rescue the survivors on the wrecks, Erasi- 
nides to sail at once against the enemy: but Thrasyllus pointed 
out that both objects might be effected by leaving forty-seven 
ships under the command of the trierarchs Theramenes and 
Thrasybulus, and of other subordinate officers, to look after the 
twelve disabled vessels [thirteen of them must therefore have 
sunk in the interval, cf. 6. 34], while they themselves sailed 
with the rest of the fleet against Eteonicus at Mytilene. They 
accordingly tried, he adds, to sail (§ 31, érAcov), but the storm 
prevented the rescue. Diodorus (xiii. 100) here makes an im- 
portant addition : the sailors of the forty-seven ships refused to 
work dia re tryyv ex THs paxns KaxomdOeay Kai dia Td peyeOos Trav 
xuparey, the general result being that the men clinging to the 
sinking ships were left to perish. 

Afterwards the generals met together to draw up a despatch 
to the Athenian senate and people’. Six of them wished to 
mention in it the orders given to Theramenes and Thrasybulus ; 
but Pericles and Diomedon out of .kindness to the trierarchs 
persuaded their colleagues to omit it. Accordingly in the 
despatch they merely wrote that the storm had: prevented all 
rescue *, 

Xenophon ® goes on to relate that the Athenians at home, as 
soon as they heard the news, deprived all the generals of their 
command except Conon, and that they chose to be his colleagues 
Adimantus and Philocles. Diodorus states in addition that 
they summoned the generals home with all speed to stand their 


44,9247. 

2 Diodorus (xiii. 101)- gives quite a contradictory account of the 
despatch : he makes out that Theramenes and Thrasybulus had already 
returned to Athens before that the generals, suspicious that they might 
intrigue against them in the city, addressed'a letter wpds rdv S7juor to 
explain that they had given orders to the trierarchs. Grote’s attempt 
(vii. 429) to reconcile the two by supposing that Diodorus has con- 
fused a private letter addressed by the generals to their friends at 
Athens with the: public despatch mentioned by Xenophon, is a mere 
subterfuge. - 

3 i. 7. 13. Diod. xiii. 101. 


40 3 INTRODUCTION. 


trial. Thereupon of the eight that had fought at Arginusae two, 
Protomachus and Aristogenes, retired into voluntary exile: the 
other six returned to Athens. Among the latter Erasinides was 
accused immediately on his arrival before a dixaornpioy pro- 
bably on a ypady xdoms Snpociav xpnudrov by Archedemus, who | 
was at that time mpoordrns rod Snpou, other charges being made 
at the same time against his generalship. The result of the 
trial was apparently that a fine was imposed upon him and 
imprisonment until he should pay it. 

Afterwards the generals jointly made a statement before the 
Senate as to the battle and the severity of the storm, of which 
Xenophon unfortunately does not give the details. Possibly it 
may have been the same as the defence that they afterwards 
made before the Assembly, that they had indeed given orders 
to Theramenes and Thrasybulus to rescue the shipwrecked 
crews, but that the violence of the storm had rendered all rescue 
impossible. This hypothesis would account for Theramenes 
saying at the first meeting of the Assembly, that in their de- 
spatch they blamed no one but the storm, and some two years 
afterwards maintaining in his defence against the accusations : 
of Critias }, that the generals had begun to accuse him first, so 
that he had acted, as indeed Critias had asserted, only in self- 
defence. Such too seems to have been the prevailing opinion 
as to his conduct at the time, if we may believe Aristophanes ? ; 
and Diodorus’ account leaves much the same impression. On 
the other hand it is almost as easy to suppose that Theramenes, 
being im extremis, devised this defence, which, such as it is, 
seems excessively lame, on the spur of the moment, and that 
Diodorus invented his account of the trial to justify this subse- 
quent defence. But, however this may be, on Timocrates’ 
proposal, the Senate resolved to arrest the generals, and bring 
them before the Assembly. 

The question here arises, what particular form of judicial 
machinery was thus set in motion against the accused generals. 
It has been very generally assumed *, that the accusation was 
an eigayyeXia of the form which Harpocration (s. v.) defines to 
be applicable én 8npocios adixnpact peyioros Kat dvaBoAny py 

1 ii, 3. 35. 2 Cf. Frogs 533, 964. 
* Cf. Schomann, De Comit. Athen., p. 206. 





§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 41 


emdexopevois, Kal ep’ ois pyre apxn KabéaornKe pyre vdpot Keivrat Tots 
dpxover xa’ ods eioa£ovotv, dAda mpos tiv Bovdny fH rév Shpov 7 
mpotn Kataoracts ylyverat,. In this case the ordinary procedure 
was (1) for the Senate, if after the preliminary hearing the 
charge appeared to be beyond its own competence, to refer it 
either to a heliastic court or, if the charge were very extra- 
ordinary, to the Assembly. Then (2) the Assembly when it met 
might either itself consider, whether there was sufficient evi- 
dence against the accused for the charge to lie, or, if there 
could be no manner of doubt upon that point, simply to deter- 
mine what should be the method of the trial. Now Xenophon’s 
narrative does to a certain extent support this theory: for 
Euryptolemus in his speech (§ 33) entreats the people not to 
convict the generals of mpo8ociay dvr rjs ddvvapias, and it is well 
known that in cases of mpo8ocia the eivayyedia was the ordinary 
form of procedure. Again in § 4 Theramenes maintains at the 
first meeting of the Assembly, that the generals dixaious eivat 
Aéyoy brocyetv: and in § 28)? Euryptolemus urges the people 
not to deprive the accused of all opportunity of legal defence : 
- so that both passages might be taken to imply, that at its first 
meeting the Assembly merely gave the case the usual pre- 
liminary hearing. On the other hand it must be remembered, 
that neither Xenophon nor Diodorus speak of the charge as an 
eivayyedta, nor of the first meeting of the Assembly as sum- 
moned merely to consider the justifiability of the accusation ; 
that all the precise information we possess about this particular 
kind of procedure is subsequent to the vdpos eicayyeAtixds, the 
date of which is certainly not earlier than the archonship of 
Euclides 403 B.C. ; and that in this particular case the proceed- 
ings were irregular throughout. 

There is indeed an obvious redson why Timocrates should 
have proposed in the Senate that the generals should be brought 
before the Assembly rather than before an ordinary Heliastic 
court : for Theraménes and his party would evidently expect to 
be able to work with much more effect upon the feelings of the’ 
Assembly, made up, as it was at this time, of the old, the 
young, and the infirm (the. large majority of the able-bodied 


* Cf. §§ 5, 23. 


- 


42 INTRODUCTION. 


citizens being still on board the fleet), than upon the feelings of 
a comparatively select body of sworn dicasts. 

Accordingly at the first meeting of the Assembly Theramenes 
and his followers appeared as the most prominent accusers of 
the generals, maintaining, that if any one was to blame for the 
death of the shipwrecked crews, it was the generals themselves, 
who in their despatch had simply mentioned the storm as the 
cause. In reply the generals made only a short defence, as the 
legal time for speaking was not allowed them, relating how they 
had given orders to Theramenes, Thrasybulus, and other capable 
men to rescue the crews, while they themselves were sailing 
against the enemy ; and repeating that really it was the storm 
which had prevented the rescue’. Their defence was supported 
by the evidence of the pilots and sailors of the fleet ; and short 
as it was, produced such a favourable impression, that many 


came forward to’go bail for the generals, and it was quite 


evident that, had a vote been taken, it would have been in their 
favour. It was, however, too late in the evening for a show of 
hands tq be seen; so that it was resolved that the case should 
be adjourned to a second meeting of the Assembly, and that 
meantime the Senate should prepare a mpoBovAevya, as to the 
method by which the generals should be tried. 

In the interval occurred the festival of the Apaturia, which 
the members of each family met to celebrate in common, and at 
which the youths, just come of age, were registered on the roll 
of their demes. This time many a place was seen to be vacant, 


and many a family appeared in mourning garb. Theramenes - 


and his party, availing themselves of these natural feelings of 
grief to kindle great indignation against the generals, seem to 
have induced not only the kinsmen of the dead to attend the 
second meeting of the Assembly, but, at least according to 
Xenophon’s narrative*, to have gone so far as to suborn men 
to appear among the crowd of real mourners, clad in black 
garments and with shaved heads, just as if they had been 
kinsmen. 

At the same time too, they persuaded Callixenus to accuse the 
_ ? This is a direct contradiction to Theramenes’ statement in ii. 3. 35, 


that the generals had asserted oldy 7’ elvas ooa: rods dydpas 
2 Cf. note on-§ 8. 


§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 43 


generals in rth Senate, which met according to the decision of 
the Assembly, and at his instigation drew up a most monstrous 
mpoBovAevpa, that since the accusation and defence had been 
already heard at the previous Assembly (which of course was 
not true), at the next meeting the people should vote at once by 
tribes, without any further hearing of the case, upon all the 
generals collectively ; that the votes should be given openly 
(i.e. not, as usual, by secret ballot); and that if the generals 
were found guilty, they themselves should be put to death and 
their goods should be confiscated. Thus in defiance of all 
Athenian legal procedure and traditions no real trial was to be 
granted to the generals at all, the voters were to be intimidated, 
and sentence was to be passed upon all the accused collectively 
instead of separately. 

Accordingly at the next Assembly, Callixenus brought forward 
this mpoBovAevpa: and the general excitement thus produced 
was still further heightened by the declaration of a sailor, who 
had ‘saved his own life by clinging to a meal-tub, that his drown- 
ing companions had bidden him, if he should escape, tell the 
people that the generals had left the most patriotic of the citizens 
to perish. 

Hereupon Euryptolemus, who was cousin to Pericles, one of 
the accused generals, together with some others, threatened 

Callixenus with a ypady rapavépor for making so unconstitutional 
"a proposal; but they were howled down by the people and 
forced to withdraw their threat, one Lyciscus even proposing 
that they should be included in the same vote as the generals, 
unless they gave way.. Now, however, some of the Prytanes, 
who were presiding over the meeting, refused to put the 
question to the vote: but when Callixenus menaced them 
with the same treatment, they all withdrew their eppesinon 
except Socrates. 

Foiled in this attempt to procure justice for the accused, 
Euryptolemus now came forward with an amendment to the 
mpoBovAevpa, or rather perhaps with an alternative proposal, 
in advocating which he was able to make a speech of consider- 
able length in defence of the generals. In the course of it 
he stated and restated the facts of the case, and pointed 
out that two legal methods of procedure were open to the 


44 INTRODUCTION. 


people. Either the generals might be tried before the people? 
in accordance with the decree.of Cannonus?, which laid down 
certain most severe penalties against such persons as had 
injured the commonwealth: or they might be tried before a 
Heliastic court under the law against sacrilege and treason. 
But whichever of these two methods the people preferred, they 
ought to be tried sefarately, fair time being allowed for the 
accusation, defence, and taking of the votes. In conclusion 
therefore, Euryptolemus formally moved that the former of 
these two methods should be adopted, namely, that the accused 
should be separately tried according to the decree of Cannonus. 

When the two proposals were put to the vote, the people 
preferred that af Euryptolemus : but tropocapévov MevexdAcous a 
second vote was taken, at which the Senate’s proposal was 
adopted. Afterwards the eight generals were condemned to 
death, the votes being taken presumably on the method laid 
down in the zpofovdevpa, and the'six of them, who had returned 
to Athens, were immediately executed. 


1 ty r@ Sjuy. Grote seems to be mistaken in laying so much em- 
phasis on the fact that the people in the éx«Anoia were not put on oath: 
- for this passage alone, where Euryptolemus is emphasizing the proper 
legal procedure, would be sufficient to show that the Assembly had full 
competence to try such cases itself without referring them to a Heliastic 
court, and other analogous instances are: produced by Schdmann (De 
Comit. Athen., p. 206). 

2 7d Kavvavot yidiopa: cf. Aristophanes, Eccl. 1089. Although . 
there is no particular reason why the words diya éxacrov should not have 
occurred in the decree, the balance of evidence seems on the whole to be 
against it. For in § 23 Euryptolemus insists just as much on the im- 
portance of separate trial for each of the accused, if the other constitu- 
tional alternative xard rdv vdpov .. . ds torw én rois LepoavAors wai wpodd- 
ras should be adopted instead. Moreover, in § 34 he seems to put the 
words 3ixa txacroy into his amendment rather in opposition to the jug 
¥hdy of Callixenus’ zpoBovAevya than in close connexion with the «ard 
70 Kavywvot yigxopa. Finally, the Scholiast on Aristophanes (ad loc.) 
gives quite a different interpretation of the word d:adeAnupévoy, which 
commentators have assumed to refer to the supposed 8ixa Exacrov of the 
decree, viz. xarexdpuevor éxarépwhev droroyetaba rdov Kar’ elaayyerlav 
dwoxpivéuevov—an interpretation which fits in very well with Xenophon’s 
Sedenévov dwod«eiy, 


§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 45 


What however was the nature of this tmapocia? Viewed 
simply in relation to the context, the passage seems to 
mean that Menecles challenged the vote on some formal 
ground, which rendered it necessary for the émordrns to. 
, put--the question to the vote again. Ordinarily, however, a 
trwpooia meant much more: it meant a determination in 
the mover of it to bring the question challenged under the 
cognizance of a court of law, and had the effect of suspending 
the validity of the resolution until the court had given its de- 
cision, But Xenophon never says a word about any such ad- 
journment, and evidently implies that the second vote was 
taken immediately after the first and onthe sameday. We have 
therefore to suppose either that Menecles interposed a trepocia 
of a kind not otherwise known, or that the neglect to carry 
into effect the adjournment that it entailed was merely one 
more among the many unconstitutional incidents of the day, 
unless -indeed we may believe the otherwise untrustworthy 
author of the Axiochus! (c. vii.) who speaks of Theramenes 
and Callixenus having at a subsequent theeting? +7 torepaia 


1 It is impossible to attach much weight to this statement in the 
Axiochus, because, short as it is, it contains two obvious mistakes : 
(1) it speaks of mpéedpo, although none were instituted before the 
archonship of Euclides, 403 B.C.; (2) it speaks of rpiopupiwy éxxdn- 
'. otafévrov, which is evidently a fallacious computation of the whole body 
of Athenian freemen. Moreover, the whole dialogue, as Grote (Plato, 
cap. iv.) shows, is a late ptoduction, and possesses no authority. 

2 Gilbert here raises the question as to what became of Socrates’ 
opposition, which both Plato and Xenophon represent to have been 
unswerving ; and finds its solution in the hypothesis of an adjournment, 
because at a second meeting Socrates would no longer have been 
émoratns. Probably, however, Socrates’ scruple, which was a strictly 
legal one, was satisfied by his putting Euryptolemus’ alternative motion 
to the vote, which contained a strictly legal proposal, although its rejection ° 
carried with it the passing of the Senate’s mpoBovAevya; for this : 
seems to be the force of the preposition in composition in the words 
Siaxeiporovoupévov, S:axeporovias, Nor: need the interposition of 
Menecles’ irwpocia have made any difference, if the question was 
immediately put again on the same day: in this case all that Socrates 
had to do was to put Euryptolemus’ motion over again: and then, 
when it was rejected, the mpofovAeupa was tpso facto carried. Cf. Good- 
win in the Transactions of the American Philo]. Assoc. 1885, p. 172. 


46 INTRODUCTION. 


suborned the proedri and so procured the condemnation of © 
the generals. 

However that may be, shortly afterwards the people repentéd 
of their injustice, and voted that a public prosecution should be 
instituted against those who had deceived the people. Callixenus 
and four others were accordingly arrested, Theramenes not 
being among the number, which seems to show that some dis- 
tinction was drawn between his conduct and that of the rest, 
possibly because it was felt, as Diodorus insists at some length, 
that he was driven to it by the exigencies of self-defence. But 
before the accused could be tried, they all escaped amid the 
political confusion of the following year. Callixenus indeed ven- 
tured to return with Thrasybulus and the exiled democrats in 
403 B.C., but hated by all, says Xenophon, he died of starvation. 


§ 5. CHRONOLOGICAL, SUMMARY, 


Year of Cam- 
B.C. . EVENTS. patgn. 
April to March. 
411. | Book I.| Agesandridas defeats the Athemian | 2Ist, 411-410. 
i, I. fleet. c. Sept. 
2-7. Battles at Rhoetium and Abydos. Winter. 


8,9. | Thrasyllus goes to Athens: Tissa- 
phernes at the Hellespont arrests 
Alcibiades. 
410. | 10-13. | Alcibiades escapes and sails to Pro- 
connesus. 
14-I9. | Battle of @yzicus. 
20-23. | Alcibiades restores the Athenian do- 
minion over the Bosporus, &c. 
23-31. | Sundry contemporary events : 
32. Revolt of Thasos to Athens. 
33-34. | Sally of Agis from Decelea. 
35-37. | Despatch of Clearchus to the Bos- 
porus, &c. 


ii, 1-13. | Thrasyllus ravages the coast of Ionia, |22nd, 410~—409. 
suffers a severe repulse at Ephesus, Summer. 
retires to Notium, and sails thence 
to the Hellespont. 


§ 5. CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY. 





18. 


409. | 14-17. 


iil, I-13. 


407. 


Vv. I-TO. 


EVENTS. 


Lacedaemonians recapture Corypha- 


sium. 
Spartan colonists massacred.at Hera- 
clea. 
Thrasyllus joins Alcibiades at Lamp- 
" sacus, where the two generals winter 
together and defeat Pharnabazus. 


Athenians sail from Lampsacus to 
Proconnesus, then invest Chalce- 
don, and compel Pharnabazus to 
conclude an armistice with them 
and to promise a safe escort for 
some Athenian envoys to the Persian 
king. 

Siege and capture of Byzantium. 

The Athenian and other envoys meet 
Pharnabazus at Gordium. 


47 


Year of Cam- , 
paign. 


April to March. 


? 
? 


Winter. 


23rd, 409-408. 
Summer. 


Winter. 


The envoys hear of the appointment of | 24th, 408-407. 


Cyrus to be satrap. Cyrus arrives 
and persuades Pharnabazus to de- 
tain the Athenian envoys. 

Alcibiades sails to Samos, while Thra- 
syllus sails with the main fleet to 
Athens; and then hearing of his 
election to begeneral, enters Piraeus 
in June. 

Reception of Alcibiades in Pac 

and Athens. 


His escort of the Eleusinian festival. 


Lysander appointed to be Spartan 
admiral. ] 

Alcibiades sets sail with his newly 
equipped fleet first to Andros, and 
then to Samos, which he makes his 
head-quarters for winter operations 
against the Peloponnesians. 

Lysander collects a fleet of ninety 
vessels at Samos, negotiates with 
Cyrus, and makes preparations for 
renewing os war by sea. 


Summer. 


Winter. 





48 
B,C. 
11-19 
406. 20 
vi. I-12. 
13-23 
24-28 
29-36. 
. | 37-38. 
vii. 
Book II. 
i. I-5. 
6, 7. 
405. | 8,9. 
10-14, 


INTRODUCTION. 


EVENTS. 


Alcibiades joins Thrasybulus at Pho- 


caea: in his absence Antiochus his 
lieutenant is defeated at Notium. 
Alcibiades returns to Samos, and 
soon afterwards withdraws in dis- 
grace to the Chersonese. Conon 
succeeds him in the command of 
the fleet. 


Conon ravages the neighbouring ter- 
ritory of the enemy. 


Callicratidas succeeds Lysander, and 
failing to get money from Cyrus, 
obtains supplies from the Milesians. 

Callicratidas storms Methymna, and 
blockades Conon in the harbour of 
Mytilene. 

The Athenians send out a fleet of 110 
vessels to the rescue, which Calli- 
cratidas attempts to intercept. 


Battle of Arginusae. 


Eteonicus despatches his ships to 
Chios and retires himself to Chios. 
The Athenian fleet sail- first to 
Mytilene, and then to Samos. 


Trial of the generals, who had fought 
at Arginusae. 


Eteonicus suppresses a mutiny among 
his troops at Chios, and obtains 
money from the Chians. 


The Spartans appoint Lysander to 
command their fleet for a second 
time. 


Cyrus is summoned to the presence of 
his father Darius. 


Lysander arrives at Ephesus, where 
he fits out his fleet with money sup- 
plied him by Cyrus, who soon after- 
wards sets out tomeet Darius, having 


first entrusted him with the revenues’ 


Year of Cam- 
paign. 
April to March. 


25th, 407-406. 
Summer. 


Winter. | 


26th, 406-405. 
Summer. 


Winter. 


27th, 405-404. 
Summer. 











404. 


§ 5. CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY, 49 


I5-2I. 


ii. I-4. 


10, II. 


12-15. 


16-20. 


EVENTS. 


of his province. The Athenians make 


counter-preparations at Samos. 


Lysander sails to Caria and Rhodes, 
and thence past Ionia to the Hel- 
lespont. The Athenians set out from 
Samos, ravage the Persian territory, 
touch at Chios and Ephesus, and 
then at Elaeus on the Hellespont : 
whence, hearing that Lysander had 
taken Lampsacus, they take up a 

osition opposite to him near 
stos. 


Battle of Aegospotami. 


Lysander captures the whole Athenian 
fleet and executes all the prisoners. 


Lysander enters Byzantium and Chal- 
cedon. 


Dismay at Athens. 


Lysander sails to Lesbos, where he 
reorganizes the government of the 
several states and despatches Ete- 
onicus to do the same in Thrace. 
General revolt of all the Athenian 
allies except Samos. Lysander re- 
stores the Aeginetan, Melian, and 
other exiles to their native cities, 
and afterwards blockades Piraeus. 

Siege of Athens: proclamation of an 
amnesty. 

Fruitless negotiations for peace first 
with Agis and then with the 
Ephors. 

Mission of Theramenes to Lysander. 

Three months afterwards Theramenes 
returns and heads an embassy to 
Sparta. 

Council of the Peloponnesian allies 
upon the fate of Athens. 


The Athenians accept the offered 
terms. 


Lysander enters Piraeus, and begins 
the demolition of the Long Walls. 


D 


Year of Cam- 
paign. 
April to March, 


Winter. 


50 INTRODUCTION. 





Year of Cam- 
patgn. 
ieirues April to March. 
iii. 1-5. Appointment of the Thirty. 404-403. 
Lysander sails to Samos, and Agis Summer. 


evacuates Decelea. Lycophron of 
Pherae defeats the Larisaeans. 


6-10. | Lysander reduces Samos and returns 
in triumph to Sparta. 
11-21. | The Thirty begin a reign of terror, | | Winter. 
supported by the Spartan harmost 
and garrison. 
23-56. | Accusation and execution of Thera- 
menes. 


lv. I-22.) The democratic exiles, headed by 
Thrasybulus, seize Phyle and march 
upon Piraeus, where they defeat 
the Thirty in battle, Critias being 
among the slain. 


23-27- | The Thirty are deposed and the Ten | 403. Summer. 
appointed in their place, with whom 
constant war is waged by Thrasy- 
bulus and the democratic exiles. 


28-38. | At the invitation of the oligarchs the 
Spartans send Lysander and Libys 
to their aid. But Pausanias inter- 
venes, and after some slight military 
operations effects a reconciliation 
between the contending factions. 


39-42. | Pausanias disbands the Peloponnesian 
army. Thrasybulus marches up to 
Athens, and restores the democrat- 
ical constitution. 
43. Final suppression of the Thirty at 
Eleusis, and proclamation of an 
universal amnesty. 








§ 6. LIFE OF XENOPHON. 51 


§ 6. DATES IN THE LIFE OF XENOPHON. 


B.C. ; 

circa 444, | Birth. 

424. | Saved by Socrates at the battle of Delium (Strabo, p. 403). 

401. | Accompanies Cyrus on his expedition against his brother 
Artaxerxes, and after the battle of Cunaxa conducts the 
retreat of the Ten Thousand to Trapezus, and then to 
Chrysopolis. 

399. | Enters with many of the Ten Thousand the service first of 
Seuthes, King of Thrace, and then of Thimbron, the 
Lacedaemonian. 

Exiled from Athens, 

396. | Accompanies King Agesilaus on his Asiatic expedition. 

394. | Returns with the King to Sparta, and is present on the 
Lacedaemonian side at the battle of Coronea. 

Settles shortly afterwards at Scillus in Elis. 
c. 373. | Expelled from Scillus by the Eleans, whereupon he retirés 
to Corinth. 
The sentence of exile revoked by the Athenians. 


c. 356. | Death. 


XENOPHON: HELLENICA, I, IT. 


Book I. 
CHAPTER I. 


In a second sta-fight Agesandridas the Lacedaemonian 
defeats the Athenians. 


Mera 8é raira ov modAals nuépas Borepoy AAOev €& 411-410 
*AOnvav Ovpoxdpns éxav vais ddrlyas’ kai edObs evav- 
pdxnoay addts Aaxedaydrioe xat "AOnvaios, évixnoar 
d& Aaxedatpdrioe Hyovpévov ’Aynoavdpléov. 


Dorieus trying in vain to enter the Hellespont, Mindarus 
puts out from Abydos to escort him, but is met by the 
Athenians. The two fleets engage, and on the arrival of 
Alcibiades, the Athenians drive the Peloponnesians back 
to Abydos with a loss of 30 ships. The Athenians leave 
only 40 ships at Sestos: the rest disperse to collect money, 
while Thrasyllus satls to Athens to ask for reinforcements. 


Mer’ dAlyor 8€ TovTwy Awpreds 6 Ataydpov éx “Pddov 2 
els ‘EAAjotovror eloémAer dpxouevov xeyavos rérrapor 
kal déxa vavoly fa nuépa. xaridov 8¢ 6 tay *AOn- 411. Oct. 
valwy Tuepooxdmos éonpnve Tots otpatnyois. of de 
dvnyayovtro én’ avroy elkoot vavolv, as 6 Awpievs 
guyov mpos Thy yiv dveBiBale ras abrod rpinpets, ws 
Hvotye, tept Td ‘Polrevov. eyyis b& yevopevwv tov 3 


ay A tary 
~ 


f 


54 HELLENICA I, ©. 1. 


411-410 *A@nvalwy gudxovto and re Tov Vedv Kal Tihs yis wéxpe 


{ ) 
| 4ol 


of ’AOnvaio. axémdevoar els= Mdduroy apds rd &AAO 
4 orpardmedov ovdty mpdgavres.. -Mivdapos 8 xaridav 
ryv paxny ev “IAlm Odwov tH ’AOnva, eBonder ent thy 
Oddarrav, kal KabeAxdoas Tas éavrod rpijpers anénre., 
5 Smws avaAdBor tas peta Awptéws. of 5& *AOnvaior 
dvravayaydopevor evavudynoay rept “ABvdov xara Thy 
nova. péxpt delAns ef EwOwod. Kai Ta wey viKdvTwy, Ta 
de vixkwpéevor, “AAKiBiddns emetomArAct Svoty dseovoats 
6 elxoot vavoiv. évteddev d€ guy taév TledoTovynolwy 
éyévero mpos thy “ABvdov' xat 6 DapydBaos mape- 
Bonde, xat érecBalvwy ro Inmw els thy OddAarray 
wexpt Suvardv hv eudxero, cat tots dAAots Tois avrod 
7 inmetor cal meCots mapexeAevero. cupdpagavres 8 Tas 


" pads of TleAotovyyjoto. xat maparagdpevor mpds TH yi 


éudxovto. "AOnvator 5& admémAevoav, Tpidkovra vais 
Tov ToAEulwy AaBdvrTes Kevas Kal ds atrol anmeAecay 

g Koutoadpevot, els Snordy. evredOev TAHY TeTTapdxovTa 
vedv GdAat SAAN wxovro én’ _aypvporoylay ew Tod “EA- 
Anondvrov' kal 6 Opdovddros, els Sv trav otparnyar, 
els ’AOnvas émdevoe tatra éEayyeAGy xa orpariay Kat 
vads alryncwy. 


Alabiades visits Tissaphernes, who had now reached the 
Hellespont, but is arrested by him and sent to Sardis. A 
month afterwards he escapes to Clazomenae, and thence 
to Cardia, whither the Athenians had retreated from 
Sestos. Meantime the Peloponnesian ships, 60 strong, had 
satled to Cysicus. Alcibiades returns to Sestos, and leads 
the combined Athenian fleet, 86 strong, to Proconnesus. 


9 Mera 88 ratra Ticcadépyns WAOev els “EAAHoTovTov" 
adixduevoy 88 tap avrov pid tpinpes "AAKtBiddynv Eévid 


HELLENICA I, ©. 1. 55 


re kat 8Gpa dyovta ovdAAaBov elp£ev ev Sdpdeor, ddo- 411-410 
kev KeAevew Bactdéa ToAeuety ’AOnvators. mudpars ben a 
tptdxovta torepoy "AAkiBiddns ex Zdpdewr pera Mav-” 

ridéou Tod GAdvros év Kaplag trawy ebmopioavres vuKrds 
améSpacay els KAadopevds* of 3? ep ZnoT@ "AOnvator, 11 
alc@dpevo. Mivdapoy amAciv én’ adrovs éd\Aovta vavoly 
éLijxovra, vuxtos amédpacay els Kapdlay. évradda dé 

kat "AAxtBeddns fev ex rov KAafoperayv oby amévte 
tpinpect Kat énaxtpld:. mvdduevos d¢ Sr al ray Te- SRY 
Aotovunolwy vies €€ ABVSov avnypévar elev els KvCiKor, 7 
abros pev me(n WAOEv els Dnordv, Tas 5¢ vats wepiTtAEty 

éxetoe éxédevoev. eel 8 FAOov, avayerOat 7dn avTod 12 
péAAovTos Os emt vavpaxlay emecomAc? Onpapévns efxoor 

vavolvy a7d Maxedovias, dua 5¢ cai OpacvBovros elxoory 
 érépats &x Odoov, ducporepor tipyvpohoynkdres. AAkt- 13 
Biddns 8¢ eltav Kal rovrows didxew adtrov éedopevors 

Ta peydra torla ards érdevcer els Tépiov GOpdar 3é 
yevdpevat al vies Gtaca ev Ilaplp &£ xai dydonxoyra 

ris emovons vuxtos aynydyovro, cat rH GAAn tyuepa 

 qept aplorov Spay joy els [Ipoxdvyvyoov. 


He takes measures to conceal his arrival, and exhorts his 
troops to fight bravely; for they had no money, while 
their enemies had plenty from the Persian king. 


"Exel 8 éndOovro Stu Mivdapos év Kulixw et xati4 
DapvdBaos pera rod meCod. ravrny piv ody Thy juépav 
avtod guevay, ry 5& torepalg ’AAKiBiddyns éxxAnoiay 
mowoas TapexeAevero avtots Sri dvdyxn ety Kal vav- 
paxeiy Kal meCopaxely Kal retxopaxety? Ob yap éorw, 
épn, xpnpara juiv, trois d& woAeulors apOova mapa 
Bacwdws. tH be mporepalg, ered @pyloayto, Ta 15 


56 HELLENICA I, ©. 1. 


411-410 mAoia amdvra xal Ta pixpa ovvpOpoice rap’ éavrdr, 


B.C. 


Stws poets eEayyelrAat rots moAeulpis ro TAHOos Trav 
 vpedy emexnpv€é te, ds Gv GAloxnrat els Td wépay d.a- 
tA€wv, Odvarov thy Chula. 


BATTLE OF CyZICUS. 


Alcibiades surprises the Peloponnesian fleet maneuvring 

outside the harbour, and after a hard fight by sea and land 

‘ captures the whole of tt. Mindarus is slain. Cyszicus sur- 

renders to Alcibiades. He exacts money from its citizens, 

and from other neighbouring states, and establishes a toll- 
house on the Bosporus. 

16 Mera 3& ryv éxxAnolay mapackevoduevos as ént 
vavpaxlay dynydyeto emt tiv Kucixoy tovros modAQ. 
éxeidn 8 éyyts ths Kuixov jv, aldplas yevouévns Kar 
Tob HAlov éxAdpyavtos xaBopa tas tod Muvddpov vats 
yupvaconevas méppw amd Tod Aysevos Kal dmeAnppévas 

17 67 avrod, éEjxovta ovaas. of 5? TleAotovvncroe lddvres 
tas tay "AOnvalwy tpinpets ovoas mAclous TE TOAAG 7} 
mporepov Kat mpds TO Atpen, Epvyoy pds THY yHv' Kal 
ovvopploapvres Tas vais éudyovro émimd€ovce Tots évav- 

18 rlows. "AAKiBuddns dé rats elxoot TGV VEeGy TEpiTAEVCAS 
anéBn els thy ynv. dev 5 6 Mivdapos xai abrds atoBas 
éy TH yn paxcpevos amébavey® of Sé yet’ avtod dvres 
épuyov. tas 5@ vads of "AOnvaior @xovto dyovres amdoas 
els TIpoxdpynoov adtv trav Svpaxoclwv' éxelvas 8% 

19 airol xaréxavoay of Svpaxdoror. éxeiey 52 TH dore- 
patq erdeoy of AOnvaios ert KvCixov. of 5¢ Ku€ixnvot 
tov IleAorovynclwy cal PapvaBacov éxAttévrwv adtiy 

20 é3¢xovro rovs ’AOnvalovs. *AAKtBiddns 8% pelvas adrod 
etkoow Huépas Kat ypyyara woAAG AaBav mapa Tév 
KuCixnvav obdtv Ao xaxdyv épyacdpevos év TH méAE 


HELLENICA I, ©. 1. 57 


dnénvevoev els TIpoxdvyncov. éxeidev 8 éndrevoev 411-410 
eis [IéptvOov xat SndAvBplayv. xat TepivO.0r pev eloe- ‘ sk 
dé£avro els Td Gotv 7d otpardmedov. TyAvBpiavol be 
edéfavro pev ov, xpyuara be edocav. evredOev 8 adixd- 22 © 
pevoe tTHS KaAxndovias els Xpvodtodty érelyioay adrjy, 

kat dexarevrnpioy Kareokevacay éy adry, Kal riy dexdrny aS 
éfédeyou Trav éx Tod [Idvrov trAolwr, kal pvdakjy éyxata- - 
Aundvres vais tpidxovra Kal orparny® dv0, Onpapévy Kat 
Etpaxov, rod re xwpiov émpedctoOat cal Trav éxAcdvtov 

mAoiwy Kat ef Te GAAO Svvawro BAdtrev Tovs moAEplovs. 

of 8 &AAot orparnyol els rov “EAAHoTovTOY @xovTo. 


The despatch of Mindarus secretary ts captured and carried 

to Athens. The satrap Pharnabazus arms the Pelopon- 

nestan fugitives to guard his coasts, and urges their com- 

manders to build new ships at Antandros. 

Tlapa 8 ‘Immoxpdrovs trot Muvddpouv émioroddws els 28 
Aaxedaipova ypdppata teppbdvta éddw els *AOnvas 
A€yovra tdde* “Eppes ta xG@da. Mivdapos amecova, 
mewarvrt Tavdpes. Groplopes rl xpy dpav. PapvdBacos 24 . 
d¢ mavri tq Trav TleAoTovynclwy orparedpars Kal Tots 
OUppaXoLs TapaxeAevodpevos pr) AOvpeiv Evexa EVAwr, 
as dytwy TOAAGy ev TH Baotréws, Ews dv Ta oopata o& 

q, tudrioy 7° ESwxev Exdote Kai epddiov dvoiy pnvoiv, 
cat 6mAlcas Tovs vavtas @vAaxas xatéotnoe THs éavTod 
mapabadarrlas ys. Kat ovyxadéoas Tovs Te amd TOv 25 
TOAEWY OTPATHYOUS Kal Tpinpdpxous éxeAcvE vauTnyetoOat 
tpinpes év Avrdvipp Saas Exactor am@decay, xpnuara 
te dud0vs Kal DAnv éx ris "dns xoullecOa ppdcwv. vav- 26 
ayyoupévev 8& of Svpaxdoror dua rots Avravdplots tod 
telyous Tu emeréAecay, kal éy TH ppovpa npsgax tavTwv 
pdAicta, 81a rabra 8% evepyeota re Kat wodurela Svpa- 





58 HELLENICA 1, ¢. 1. 


411-410 xoolos éy Avrdvipw éorl. PaprdBalos pev ody raira 


d:ard£as ebOds els Kadynddva éBonde. 


Story of the exile of the Syracusan commanders at Antandros, 
and of Hermocrates’ accusation against Tissaphernes and 
expedition against Syracuse. 


27 "Ev 32 Th xpdvp TovT HyyéAOn Tois Tév Tupaxoolwy — 


arpatnyots olxobev St. hevyorgy bd Tod Sypov. ovy- 
Kadécavtes ovy Tovs éavrév orpatidtas “Epyoxpdrovus 
mponyopovvros amwAog@vpovto thy éavTav cuudopdy, ws 
ddixws pevyoey &tavres Tapa Tov vopov" Tapyverdy Te 
mpoOvpous elvar cal Ta douTd, @onep Ta WpoTEpa, Kat 
&vdpas dyabovs mpds ra det mapayyeAACuEva, penynuevous 
Soas re vavpaxlas abrot Kad’ abrovs verixnKare Kal vais 
elAngpare, Soa te pera Tév GAAwY anrrynto. yeydvare 
NpOv hyovpever, tag exovres thy kparlorny bid Te 
THY Nuetepay apernv xal ba THY tyuerépay tpoOvplay Kat 
kata ynv kal xara OdAarray tmdpxovoay. €édéoOat dé 
éxéAevoy Gpxovras, péxpt av adlxwyras ot 7pnévor avr’ 
28 éxelywy. of 8 dvaBonoavtes éxédXevoy exelvouvs dpyey, 
kal pdAwora of Tpinpapxot Kal of émPBdra Kai of KuBep- 
pita. of 8 ovx épacay detv oracidcey mpos THy éavTav 
Meee el 3¢ Tis eixadoiy Te abrois, Adyov epacay 


Xpivat Siddvar. ovdevds 5é oddey errarrimpévov, Seopévwv — 


guevav Ews adlxovro of dvr’ éxelywy aotparnyol, Anpap- 
xds te Emddxov xat Mioxwy Mevexpdrovs xat IIdrapes 
[ydovos. tév be rpinpapywv dudoavres of aAcicror 
katdfew gutovs, érday els Supaxovcas ddixwyrat, dme- 
30 méupayto Sirot EBovAovro mavras ématvodvres’ Ldlq Se of 
apos ‘Eppoxparn tpocopiAobvres padtota endOnoay TH 
Te €mpéAccay Kat mpodvplay Kat Kowdtnra. dy ydp 
éylyvwoke Tots émetkeotdrovs kal Tpinpdpxov kal KuBep- 


a 


HELLENICA I, ©. t. 59 


vytav Kat émBardv, éxdotns jugpas mpm Kat mpos 
éonépay ovvadl(wy mpds THY oKynvnv Thy éavTod dvefr- 


411-410 
B.C. 


vooro Ste éedAev 7) Aéyew 7 mpdtrey, kaxelvous dldacKe * 


Kedevwy Adyew Ta pev awd Tod mapaxpipa, Ta Se Bov- 


Ud e , X > “A 
Aevoapévovs. ex TovTwy ‘Epyoxparns Tad TOAAG ev TO 31 


avvedply evddber, Aéyew te Sox@v cat Bovrevew Ta 
kpdattora. Kkatnyopicas dt Ticcadépvovs év Aaxedalyout 
‘Epyoxpdrns, paptupodvros cat *Aorudxov, xal ddfas Ta 
dvta A€yewv, adixdpevos mapa PapydBacor, mpiv alrjoa 
Xpymara AaBdyv, mapecxevdcero mpos THY eis Dvpaxovoas 
xdOodov &évous te kal tpinpers. ev tovTm de FKov of 
diddoxot Tov Svpaxociwy els MiAnrov xat mapéAaBov 
Tas vads kal TO oTparevu.a. 

The Spartan harmost Eteonicus ts expelled from Thasos. 


The admiral Cratesippidas takes command of the ships 
that Pasippidas had collected. 


"Ev Odow 8% xara Tov Katpdy Todroy oTdvews yevo- 32 


pévns éxalarovow of Aakwvoral Kat 6 Adxwv appoorns 
’Eredvixos’ xatairiadels.82 Tatra mpaga ovy Ticcagépver 
Tlacurnidas 6 Adxwy épvyev éx Sadprns* én d& rd vav- 
rixdv, & éxeivos HOpolker dnd TGV cuppdaxwn, eLemeupOn 
Kparnounnisas, cat mapéAaBev év Xi. 

Agis makes a sally from Decelea, but retreats hastily before 


Thrasyllus. In reward the Athenians vote Thrasyllus 50 
trivemes and considerable reinforcements. 


Ilept 8& rovrovs rots xpdévovs OpacvdAdAov év *APjvats 338 


ovtos “Ayis éx ris AexeAclas mpovopiy trovovpevos mpds 
avra Ta Telyn FADE TGv AOnvalwv’ OpdovddAos 8 e£a- 
yayov *AOnvalovs xait tovs dAAovs tovs ev TH TéAEL 
évras G&navras wapérake mapa rd Avxevoy yuprdoror, 


@s paxotperos, ay mpociwow. ldav b& ratra "Ayis 34 


60 ' HELLENICA [, © 1. 
; im Ae NLA, 


411-410 dmjyaye taxéws, kal twes abrdy ddrlyou tov ea Tact 
BC. jad rev Widev aneOavor. of obp AGnvaion TO Opactdrp 
5:a radra ert mpodupdrepor yoay ed & Tre, Kal eyngi- 
cavto émAlras re avrov xaradé£acOat xtAlovus, imméas Se 

éxarov, Tpinpets 5 WeyTHKoVTA. 


Agis sends Clearchus with a small squadron to the Bosporus 
to cut off the Athentan corn supply. Clearchus loses three 
ships in the Hellespont, but with the rest safely reaches 
Bysantium. 


35 “Ayws dé éx ris AexeAelas ldap Acta oAAG atrov els 
Iletpaa xatradéovra, ovdév dpedos Edy etvat tots per 
avtod moby 7dn xpdévov AOnvalovs elpyev tis yijs, el 
py tis aoxjoo. kat SOev 6 Kata OddAarray ciros go.ra’ 
kpdatiordy Te etvar kat KAdapxov rév “Papdiov mpd$evor 
dvra Bulavriwy méuyrou els Kadynddva te xai Budyriov. 

36 Sofavros 5€ rovrov, TAnpwOetoGy vedv ex te Meydpwv 
kal mapa Téy GAAwy cuppdxov wevrexaldexa oTpariwri- 
Sv paddAov 7 TaxetGv @xero. Kal abrod trav vedy tpets 
anddduvrar év tq “EdAnondyre bn6 Tay ’ArrixGy evvéa 
ve@y, at del évradda ra mAoia StepvAarrov, at 8 GAAat 
épuyov eis Unoroy, éxetOey 3e eis BuCdvrioy éodOnoav. 


Contemporary events in Sicily. 
37. Kal 6 énavros édnyev, dv 6 Kapxnddvor “AvviBa 
Nyoupevov otparevoavtes emt DixeAlay déxa pupidor 
A otparias aipotow év rpiot pnot dvo0 mdéAes “EAAnvidas 
(hil LeAwodvra xat ‘Ipepay. 





HELLENICA I, ©. 2. 61 


CHAPTER II. 


Thrasyllus sails with his fleet to Samos: he makes numerous 410-409 
descents upon the Ionian coast, till he is stopped by Stages BC. 
the Persian. 


T@ 82 dAA® ere [F Fv ’Odvpmas tplrn cal eveynxoory, 
4 mpooredeica Evywpls evixa Evaydpou ’HAclov, rd be 2 An 
aordd.ov EvBoéras Kupnvatos, emi épdpov pev dvros év 7 
Uadpty Evapytrzov, dpxovros 8 év ’AOjvais Edxrijpovos, | 
"AOnvator pev Oopixdy érelyicav, Opdovddos Se ra Te 
WndicOdvta mAota AaBov Kal mevraxicxiAlovs Tov 
vavTdy meATaoTas Tromnoduevos, [as Gua xal meATacTais 
écopévors,| éférrevoen apxopévov tod Oépovs els Sduor. 410 April. 
éxet 52 pecvas tpets tucpas exArevoey els TIvyeAa’ xaig 
évrad0a thy Te xépay edjov Kai mpooéBaddre Te Telyxet. 
éx 8¢ ris MiAnrov BonOjoavrés twes tots TvyeAcdor 
dseomappevous dvras tv AOnvalwy rots Wrdrovs édlwxor. 
of 3& weATacrai Kal Tv étALTGy BVO Adyor BonFjcartes 3 
mpos ToUs abrav wWidovs dméxreway Gmavtas rots éx 
MuAnrov éxrds dAlywv, cat domldas édaBov as d:axoclas, 
Kat tpotaoy éornoay. tH Se torepalg enrevoay els 4 
Norioy, cal évredbev tmapacKevacdpevot eropevovto els 
KododGva. Kodrtgodamor 5€ mpocexdpyoay. Kai Tis 
émiovons vuxtos évéBadrov els thy Avdlay dxudovros 
Tod olrov, Kai k@pas Te ToAAdS évémpnoay Kal xpyyata c. June. 
é\aBov xat dvipdtoda cai GAAnv Aclav ToAAnV. Trdyns 5 
de 6 [lépons wept radra ra xwpla dy, émei of ’AOnvaior 
éx Tod oTparoTébov dtecxedacpevot yoav Kata Tas idias 
Aelas, BonOnodvrwv rév trréwy &a pev (wdv éraBer, 
éxta 88 dméxtewve. Opdovados 8 pera radra dmjyayer 6 


62 HELLENICA I, ©. 2. 


410-409 él OdAarray thy otpatidy, ws els "Edecov mAevod- 
B. e 
OC.  pevos. 


Thrasyltlus attacks Ephesus, but is defeated with great loss by 
the citizens, Syracusans, and the troops of Tissaphernes. 
Tiroadéprns d¢ alcOduevos rodro ro émixelpnua, oTpa- 
Tidy Te ovveAeye TOAAHY Kal tanéas daécTeAAe Tapay- 
(7) ydrAwv Taow els "Edecov BonOeiv rH Apréuid.. Opd- 
7 ovddos Se EBdduN Kai dexdryn Huépa pera Thy eloBodAnv 
els “Eqecov énAevce, cal rovs pev éaAlras mpds tov 
Kopnoodv anoBiBdoas, tous Se imméas xal weATaotas 
kal émBdras Kat rovs GAAovs mdvtas mpds TO EAos emi 
Ta Erepa THs TéAEws, Gua tH Nuépa mpoajye bVo0 oTpa- 
aes of & ex rhs ToAEws Sacféncae et ge 
ovppaxot obs Tiacadépyns tyaye, cat Zupaxdoroe of 7 
amd Tév mporépwr elkoot vedv Kal amo érépwv TEVTE, at 
€rvxov Tore Tapayevopevat, vewotl fKovoat pera Ev- 
KAéous Te TOD “Immwvos kat ‘HpaxAeldov rod ’Apioroyévous 
9 oTpatnyGp, kal DedAtvovorat dvo. obro. dé mavres TPGTov 
pev mpos tovs émAlras rots év Kopnoc@ éBonOnoar’ 
rovrous Se tpeydpevor cal dmoxtelvavres é€ airGy as ei 
éxaréyv kat els thy OdAarray xaraiidfavtes mpds Tovs 
mapa TO EXos érpdmovro. epuyov dé Kaxet of "AOnvaior, 
10 kat dxéAovro aitGv ws Tpraxdatot. of 8¢ "Edéotor tpd- 
matov évtav0a éotnoay Kal Erepov mpos to Kopyocg. 
tots 8 Svpaxoclois Kai DedAwvovolois xparlorots yevo- 
pévots dptoreta Edwxay Kai xown Kat idlq moddois, cat 
oixety dréAetay ESocay TO Bovdopévy del* Tedwvovalors 
dé, evel 7 wéAts AmwAGAEL, Kal moAITElay Edocar. 





HELLENICA I, 0.2% 63 


The Athenians retreat to Notium, and sail thence to Lesbos, 410-409 
where they fall in with the Syracusans, and chase them  B8.©. 
back to Ephesus with the loss of four ships. Thrasyllus 
joins the Athenian squadron at Sestos, and the combined 
Jorce then crosses to Lampsacus. 


Of & ’AOnvaior rovs vexpods broandvdous arokaBdvTes 11 
aménAevoay els Noriov, xaxet.Odwavres atrovs émXeov 
ént AéoBov kat ‘EAAnondvtov. éppodvres 8¢ év MnOvpvn 
tis AéoBov eldov mapatAcovcoas é€ "Edécov ras Zupa- 
koalas vais mévte Kai elxoow’ xal én atras avaxOévres 12 
Térrapas pév édaBov aitois dvdpac., tas 8 GAAas Kare- 
dlwEav els "Eqecov.. xat tots pev GAAovs alyyaddrovs 18 
Opdcvaros els ’AOnvas anéweu we mavras, "AAKiBiddnv 
d¢ "AOnvaior, ’AAKiBiddov dyra dvewiov xal ovudvydda, 
dnéducev. éevredOev 5¢ emAevoev els THY Xynordy mpds 
To GAAO otpdrevpa’ exeiOev 5€ Anaca H oTparia 5éBN 


els Adpwaxov. 


The unconquered troops of Alcibiades refuse to associate with 
the defeated troops of Thrasyllus, until in combination they 
win a brilliant victory over Pharnabazus at Abydos. 


Kal yemov ene, év © of alxuddwro: Zvpaxdorot, 14 
elpypévor tod [letpards év AOoroplats, dopd£avres Thy 410 Oct. 
métpav, amodpavres vuxtos @yxovto els AexéAetav, of 8 
els Méyapa. év 8@ rH Aapydxw ovvtarrovtos ‘AAki- 15 
Biddov Td otpdtrevua wav ot mpdtepor otpariGrat ovK 
éBovrovro Tois pera OpacvAdrov ovvrdrrecbat, ws avrot 
pep dvres anrrnrot, éxeivor 5¢ HTTNwEvoL FKovev. evradda 
59 éxeluacov Amavres Aduwaxov teix{Covres. kat éorpa- 16 
revoay mpos "ABvdov' PapydBatos 8 eBonOnoey Iarrors 
moddols, kat pdaxn qrTrndels epvyer. "AAKiBiddyns de 
€lwxev xwv tovs Te inméas Kal rGv SAurGy elxoor Kal 


64 HELLENICA IJ, CC. 2, 3. 


410-409 éxardv, dv jpxe Mévavipos, péxpt oxdros adelreto. ex 
BO. 17 32 rijs paxns tavtys ouvéBnoay of otpariGrat avroi 
avrois xal jomd(ovTo Tovs pera OpactAdov. éfnrOov 
dé tevas Kal GAAas é€ddous Tod yewpavos els THY Trepov 


kal éxdpOouy tiv BaotAéws x@pav. 


The Lacedaemontans recapture Coryphasium, t.e. Sphac- 
terta. Massacre of the Spartan colonists at Heraclea. 
Revolt of the Medes. 


18 To 8 aire xpdve cat Aaxedaydvioe rots els rd Ko- 
puddotov trav Eidorav adeorGras éx Madéas tro- 
ondviovs apyxav. xara 5¢ rov atrov Kaipdy kal év 
“Hpaxdela ti Tpaxevig ’Axatol rots éemolxous, avtite- 
Taypévev Tavtwy mpos Olralovs woAeulous Gvras, mpov- 
docav, dote atoA€cOat abrav mpds éxraxoctovs civ TO 

19 éx Aaxedaluovos appoorn AaBodra. Kat 6 éviavrds éAnyev 
otros, év 6 kal Mydor dad Aapelov rod Nepodv BactAéws 
anoordyres méAw mpocexdpnoay adr. 


CHAPTER III. 


The Athenian fleet satls from Lampsacus to Proconnesus and 
the Bosporus. Alcibiades invests Chalcedon, and success- 
Sully resists a joint attack made on his lines by Hippocrates 
Jrom within and Pharnabazus from without. Hippocrates 
was slain. 
ae Tod 8 émdvros érovs 6 év Pwxalg vews tis ’AOnvas 
“" évetpyaOn mpyotipos éumecdvros, eet 8 6 xeqov ernye, 
[ TlavraxA€ovs piv épopevovros, dpxovtos 8 *Avriyévovs, | 
April. Zapos dpxopuévov, [8voty cal elxoow erdv Te ToAEuM 
mapednrvddrwr, | of *AOnvatos EmAevoay els Tpoxdvenovy 





ae ile ea = 5s, _ 











HELLENICA I, ©. 3. "65 
mavtt T@ oTparoTédm. éxeiOev 3° emi Kadxniddva xal 409-408 
BuCdvrioy dppnoavres éotparomededcavto mpos Kadxy- , B.C. 
dove. of 3% Kadxnddviot mpoordyras aicOduevor rovs 
’"AOnvalovs, thv Aclav Atacay xatéBevro els Tovs BuOvvods 
©paxas dorvyelrovas dvras. "AAxiBiddns 5 AaBov rév 8 
re dmv Grlyous kat rods imnéas, kal ras vats wapa- 
mAely Kedevoas, €AOdv els Tovs BiOvvods anyre. Ta TOV 
Karxndovlwy xpnpatra’ ef 82 yn, moAcunoew en avrots. 
of 8 dnédocav. "AAKiBiddns 8 eel Fxev els Td oTpa-4 
romedov tHv te delay éxwy xat wlores memoinpévos,, 
dmerelyiCe thy Kadynddéva navtl ro otparonédo amd 
Oaddrrns eis OdAarray Kal tod ToTayod Scov olov r Hy 
Evrlvg relxer. evradda ‘Inmoxpdrns pev 6 Aaxedatpdrios 5 
dppootis éx rhs médews eyyaye Tovs otparidtas, as 
paxovpevos’ of 5 "AOnvaio. dvtimaperagavto air, 
PapvdBalos 5¢ fw rdv mepireryiopatwv mpoceBonder 
oTpartG te Kad Unmors toddots. ‘Immoxpdrns pev ody 6 
Kat OpdovAdos éudyovro éxdrepos tots émAlrais xpdvov 
MOAVY, expt AAKiBiddyns exw SaAiras TE TLwvas Kal Tovs 
imméas €BonOnce. «at ‘Iamoxparns pev darébaver, of 52 
wer avrod dvres Edvyoy els tiv méAw. Gua 8 Kal7 
PapvdBaCos, od dvvdyevos ovppl£ar mpds tov “Immoxpdary 
d:a Thy oTevoroplay, Tob morayod Kal rév amorexiopa- 
Tov éyyus dvtTwy, amexopnoey els Td “Hpdxdetoy rd Trav 
Kadxndoviwv, ob fv aire 16 otpardmedov. 


While Alcibiades is absent collecting money on the Hellespont, 
the Athenians come to terms with Pharnabazus, who agrees 
lo send Athenian envoys to the Persian king, and to allow 
Chalcedon again to become tributary to Athens. The 
Athenians agree to suspend all hostilities till thetr return. 


"Ex rovrov 3% "AAKiBiddyns pev @xero els roy “EAAHC- 8 
B 


66 HELLENICA I, ©. 3. 


1) 408-408 TOvTOV kal els Xeppdimoov xprwara mpdgov’ of 8€ Aotzot 
B.C.  grparnyol cuvexdpnoay mpds PapvaBaov inép Kadx7- 
ddvos elxoot rddavra dSodvat AOnvalots PapydBatov Kai . 
8 as Bacwréa mpéoBes "AOnvalwy dvayayetv, cal Spxous 
éo0cayv xat éaBov mapa PapvaBdalov toreAciy rév 
[-'14) gépov Kadxndoviovs *AOnvalois Scovrep eidOecav kat 
Ta shetrddueva xphpara drodotva, ’AOnvaiovs 5 py} 
moAepetv Kadxndovlots, ws Gv of mapa BactAéws mpéo- 

Bes ZdOworv. — 


After some delay Alcibiades swears to the treaty at Chryso- 
polis and Pharnabazus at Chalcedon. Pharnabazus goes 
to Cyszicus, where he is met by the Athenian envoys, and 
also by some Spartan envoys. 


10 "AAKktBiddns be rots Spxots ovK erdyyave Tapav, GAAG 
mept SndAvBpiav hv éxelvnv 8 édAav mpds rd Buldvriov 
jxev, Exwv Xeppovnolras re mavdnpet xal dad Opaxns 

11 orpariéras Kai laméas tAElous tTpraxoolwyv. PapvydBacos 
be dfiGv Seiv Kdxetvoy dpviva, meptepevey ey Kadyn- 
Sdve, péxpt EXAOoe ex rod BuCaytiov’ émerd7 8 FAOev, ovK 
épn duetoOat, ef 2) Kaxeivos atT@ duetrat. peta Tadra 
Gpoocey 6 pty év XpvconmdAc ols PapvdBalos emeue 

12 MirpoBdret xat ’"Apydme, 6 8’ év Kadynddue rots map’ 
"AAxtBiddov EvdputroAgu@ Kat Acorlu tov re Kowdr 

13 Opxoy xat ldlqg GdAnAos mlores exoujcavto. Papyd- 
Baos pev oy evOvs ame, Kat rovs apd Bactrea 
mopevopevous mpéoBers amavray éxéAevoev els Kucixov. 
éréupOnoay b¢ ’AOnvalwy pev Awpdbeos, Pidrodlkns, 
Qcoyévys, EvpumrdAenos, Mavrideos, ody 5% rovrots 
*Apyeto. KAedotparos, [Iuppddoxos* éropevovto 8é Kat 
Aaxedatpovlwy mpéoBets Tactmmldas cal Erepor, pera be 








_ HELLENICA 1, ©. 3. 67 


TovTwy Kal “Eppoxpdrns, non pevywv éx Zvpaxovoar, 400-408 .. 
B.C. 
kat 6 ddeAdos airod pdgevos. 


The Athenians besiege Byzantium. While Clearchus the 
’ Spartan harmost ts away, collecting forces to raise the 
stege, some Byzantines betray the city to Alcibiades, The. 
garrison, unable to resist, surrender. Story of Anaxilaus 
- at Sparta. 


Kal DapvdBaos pev rovrovs tye ot. 8% "AOnvaiae 76 14 
Bu(avriov éroArdpxouv mepirerx loaves, kal mpos TO TEtXos 
dxpoBoAtcpods Kat mpooBodds érowodvro. ev 8&8 rq@ Bu- 15 
Cavrio fv Kdéapxos Aaxedatpdrios d&ppoorhs Kal oby 
aiT@ TOY Teptolkwy Tives Kal TGV veodapwddy ov ToAAOt 
kat Meyapeis xat dpywy atrav “EAr£os Meyapeds xal 
Bowwrot xai rovrwy dpxwv Koiparddas. of 8 ’A@nvator 16 
ws ovdey edvvavto biampdgacba Kar loydv, émevody 
twas Tov Bu(avrlwy mpododvat tiv médtv. KAéapyxos 17 
dé 6 dppooris olduevos ovdéva dv todto Toijoat, Kata- 
ornoas 5 Anavta ws édvvaro KdANoTa Kal émitpépas 
Ta éy TH moAE Kouparadg kai “EAlE@, d€Bn wapd rov 
PapvdBatov els rd Tépav, procOdy rE Tots oTpaTiorats 
map avTovd AnWopuevos cal vads ovdAdrAE£wv, at joav év 
tT@ “EdAnoTévtT@ GAdat xaradeAcippévar ppovpides b7d 
Tlaciwraldov xat év ’Avrdvipo xai ads *Aynoavipldas 
elyev éi Opdxns, émiBdrns dv Mivddpov, cat Saws SAAat 
vautnynbelnoay, dOpdar 5& yevopevat Tacat KaxGs Tovs 
cvuppaxovs tév ’AOnvaiwy mototoca. dmoondceray Td 
orpaténedoy amd tod BuCavrlov. eémet 3 éfétArAevoer 618 
’ KA€éapxos, of mpodiddvres thy mod tav Buavrlwv 
Kvdwv cal ’Aplorwy xal ’Avagixpdtns xat Avxodpyos Kat 


“Avagihaos, ds dmaydpevos Oavdrou borepov év Aaxedal- 19 7 
povt da tiv mpodooiay dnépvyev, Sti ov mpodoln Thy nee v Fy = 
E2” Se esas 


— 


y 





68 : HELLENICA I, CG, 3, 4 


400-408 méAtv, GAAG odoa, tmaidas épGy Kai yuvaixas Aime 
B.C.  amodAupevas, Bu¢dytios dv kat ov Aaxedatudonos* Tov 
yap évévra otrov KA€apyov rots Aaxedatyovlwy otparid- 

rats diddvat’ dua. Tadr’ ody Tovs ToAEulovs pn eloécOat, 

ovK dpyvplov Evexa ovdé 1d TO pucety sia see teal 

20 émel 3e avrois mapeoxevacTo, vuxtos dvolfavres Tas TUAas 


tas émt Td Opdxtoy Kadovpévas elonyayov TO otpdrevpa 


aixal tov "AAxiBiddnv. 6 && “EAt£os cal 6 Kotparddas 
ovdey Tovtwy elddres eBonOovy pera tdvrwv els Thy 
dyopdy' ened 88 mdvtn of modgutoe Kareixov, ovdey 

22 Zyovres, 6,71 Tomoeay, mapedocav chas adrovs.. kar 
obro. pty amemeupOnoay els ’AOivas, kat 6 Koiparddas 
év 76 dyA@ droBawdvrav év Tepacet Zradev arodpas 
kal ameawOn els Aexéderav. | 


CHAPTER IV. 


Pharnabazus and the envoys are met at Gordium by some 
Spartan envoys with the news that Cyrus has been ap- 
pointed satrap at Sardis, and ordered to aid the Lacedae- 
montans in the war. 


408-407 DapvdBacos de Kal of mpéaBes THs Povylas év Fop- . 


B.C. 
q dtelm dvTes Tov XELLGva TO. mept TO Bu(dvriov metpay- 


April. Cee qKovoay. dpxouevou 8& Tod éapos mopevopevors - 


airois mapa Bactkéa arqvrncay xaraBalvovres of Te 
Aaxedatpovlwy mpéoBers Bowwrios dvoua Kat of per 
avrod kal of GAAou GyyeAo, Kal €dcyor Sti Aakedatpdvior 
8 ndytwy ov déovrat wempaydres elev Tapa Bacréws, Kai 
n “A A ‘ , 
Kipos, dp£ov mavrwv tov emt Oaddrrn Kat ocvpTodA€euy- 








HELLENICA I, C. 4. 69 


cov Aaxedayzovlots, émiotoAny re Epepe Tots KaTW TAaCL 408-407 
76 Baclricoy oppdytopa exovoay, éy 7 éviv Kat rade. ee 
Karanéuaw Kipov xdpavoy raév els KaotwAdv d0porco- 

pévav. [TS de xdpavoy éors xvpior. | 


“6 yrus on his arrival persuades Pharnabazus to detain the 
Athenian envoys on various pretexts, so that they did not 
return till three years afterwards, 


Tair’ ody dxovortes of rév "AOnvalwy mpécBets, cal 4 
ézretd)) Kipov eidov, éBovAovro pdAtota pey Tapa Bact- 
Aéa dvaBjvat, ef 5¢ py, olkade AmeAOciv. Kipos 585 
, BapvaBaly elxev 7) tapadodvat rots mpécBes éavT@ 7} 
wh otxadé mw dronéupat, BovAduevos rovs ’AOnvalovs 
pH eldévac Ta mparropeva. PapydBalos S¢ réws pev 6 
Kareixe Tos mpéaBes, PadocKwy Tore pev dvdkew avrovs 
mapa BactAéa, tore b€ olxade dromeuwew, Os pydev_ 
pepynrar eed) Se eviavtol rpeis oav, ede70n Tod 7 
Kvpov ddetyat avrovs, ddoxwy éumpoxévar dmdagew em 
OdXratray, éretd1) ov Tapa Bactrdéa. méuwavres Se’ Apto- 
BapCaver tapaxoploa atrovs éxédevov’ 6 3e amjyayev 
els Kioy rijs Mvolas, 50ev mpos to dAXOo otpare- 
medov amTéeTAEVTAD. 


Alcibiades designs to return to Athens. Thrasybulus reduces 
Thasos and the revels in Thrace. Thrasyilus leads the 
main fleet back to. Athens. Meantime the Athenians elect 
Alcibiades general. 


"AAKtBiddns 8& BovAduevos peta TGv orTpatiwradr 8 
‘ dmomActy olkade, avnyOn evOds emt Tduov' exeiOev Se 
AaBov toy vedv elxoow Emrevoce THs Kaplas els rov 
Kepapxdy xdArov. exetOevy 38 ovddAé~as éxardy Td- 9 
Aavta jKev els THY Lapov. OpactBovdros 8 ody rpia- 





70 HELLENICA I, Cc. 4. 


408-407 Kovta vavoly ént Opdxns dyero, éxel 38 Th Te GAA 
BC. ywola ta mpds Aaxedapovlovs peOeoTnkdéra Kateotpe- 
aro kal Qdcov, éxovoay xaxGs tad te TOY TOAgBwY 
10 kal ordcewy Kat Atpod.. Opdovddros be oty TH GAH 
-otparia els "AOjvas xarérdevoe’ mply 8k Frew adrov 
of A@nvato: otpatnyovs etdovro *AAKiBiddnv pev pev- 
‘yovra Kat OpactBovdov andvra, Kévwva 88 rplrov éx 

ray olxoev, 


Alcibiades sails from Samos and on hearing the news with 

. some hesttation enters Piraeus on the day of the Plynteria. 

11 AAKcBiddys 8 ex rhs Sduov éxwv ra xphuara xaré- 
-  ghevoev els Tdpov vavoly elxoow, exeidey 8 dvny On 
evOU Tvbelov ént xatacxonny tév tpijpwr, ds ewuvOd- 
vero Aaxedaioviovs atrd6. mapackevd(ew tpidxovra, 
kal rod olxade xaramAov Strws 7 méAts Tpds adroy exe. 

12 éel 3’ Edpa EavT@. eivovy ovoay Kal otpatnydv addy 
npnuevovs Kat ldiq perameumopévovs Tods emrndelovs, 
June 408: xarémAevoen els Tov Meipara fueog f WAvvripia fyev 
‘ToAts, TOD Edovs KaTaxexadvppevov Tis "AOnvas, 6 Ties 
olwvlfovro avemiryderov elvat xat ait@ xal ty méAer 
"AOnvalwy yap oddels ev ratty rh juépa ovdevds omov- 
dalov epyou roAunoa av dyacOa. 


Various feelings of the Athenians towards him: some said 
that he was the victim of the intrigues of his enemies, who 
had contrived his exile to make room for their own am- 
bitious schemes, others, that he was the cause of all the 
Athenian misfortunes. 


13 KaramAéovtos 8 avrot & re éx tod [letpatas xat 6 éx 
Tod dorews GxAdos nOpolcOn mpos tas vats, Oavpd corres 
cat [Sety BovAduevos rov "AAKiBiddnv, A€yovTes ot. pev 

















HELLENICA I, C. 4. 7% 


@s kpdriotos ely rGv ToAtTay Kai pdvos [dmedoynOn os] 408-407 
od dixalws giyor, emiBovdevdels 38 bad T&v erarrov B ©: 
éxelvov duvapévwr poxOnporepa Te AcydvTwy Kal mpds Td — 
atray Wrov xépdos woAtrevdvrep, éxelvov del Td Kowvdy 
avfovros xat and tév atrod xai dnd Tod Tis méAEws 
duvarod, @Oédovtos 8@ tore KplverOar mapaxphua ris 14 
airlas dpre yeyeynuévns Os joeBnxdros els Ta pvoripta, 
imepBaddpevor of éxOpot ra doxoivra Slkata elvar aadvra 
-abrov éorépyoap ris tarpldos* év & xpdéve tro dunyavias 15 
dovrevwy jvayxdodn pev Oepatevery tors exOlorovs, 
kwvduvevor det trap éxdotny juepay amoAécOar’ Tots 5é 
otxetordrovs moAlras te xal ovyyeveis kal riv mA 
dmacav dpGy é£ayaprdvovcay, ovx etxev STws wdedoly 
guyh ametpyduevos* ovx épacay 8% rév olwymep aitospe 
6vTwy elvat kavav detcOat mpaypdarwv ovdt meTracTacews" 
bmdpxew yap éx Tod Sypov aire pey trav Te HAcKwwrdy 
mop Exe TOY TE TpETBTépwy pH EAaTTODTOaL, Tots 3) 
abrod éxOpots rovovrois doxety etvar oloromep slants * 
dorepoy 8 Suvacbetow atodAvvat Tovs BeAtlaorous, av- 
tous 5¢ pdvovs AecPOEvras be abrd rodro dyaracbar io | 
T@v ToALTGY Gre éréports BeAtloow odk etxov xpjodat’ of[17 
36, Ste Tay TapoLxoévwy avrots Kax@v pdvos airtos etn, 
tov Te, poBepav Gvrwy TH ToAE yevéoOat pdvos Kivdv- 
vevoal NYEMOV KaTACTHVat. 
Alcibiades lands and ts escorted to the city by his friends. 
His defence before the Senate and Assembly ts favourably 
received. He ts chosen commander-in-chief, and conducts | 
the sacred procession to Eleusis safely by land. Then 
having equipped 100 triremes and large reinforcements, he 


sails with them to Andros. He gains a slight success over 
the Andrians, and then sails to Samos. 


"AAKtBiddns 8¢ mpds THY yy dpurodets améBawe pev 18 


72 HELLENICA J,C. 4. 


408-407 ovK evOéws, PoBovpevos Tots exOpovs* émavacras 5% emt 

Tov KaTaocTp@patos éoKdTEL TOvs avTrod émrndetovs, et 

19 Tapelnoav. KxaTidav 88 Edpumrdévepov rv Tetocdvaxros, 

_atrod 5é dveywidy, cal rots GAXovs oixelovs cal rovs of- 

Aous per attav, tore dmoBas dvaBalver els tHv moALW 

pera TOY Taperkevacpeven, ef Tis Amrocro, py emerpémenv. 

20 éy 8& rH Bovdj Kal rH éxxAnola amodoynodpevos Os odK 

joeBryKet, elaay St as Hdlknrat, AexOévTwy é kal dAAwy 

“ToLovTwy Kat oddevds dvrevmdvTos 81a Td pi dvacyxécOat ’ 

dy thy éxxAnolav, dvappndeis amdvrwov yeuov avro- 

! xpdtwp, as olds re Sv cGoat thy mporepay Tis méAEws 

dvvapty, mpdérepov pev Ta pvotnpia Tov "AOnvaiwy xara 

Gddarray dydvrwy da Tov méAEuoV, KaTa yy érolnoev 

21 ¢fayayav Tovs orpatidras Admavras* pera 82 Tatra Kate- 

Aé£aro otpatidy, dwAlras pev mevtaxoatovs Kal xtAlovs, 

inméas 88 mevrijxovra Kat éxardv, vats 8 éxardv. kat 

October PETA Tov KatdmAovy tplrw pnvl avnxOn én’ “Avdpop 

408. adeornkviay tév ’AOnvalwy, cal per adrod ’Aptoto- 

* xpdrns xat*Adeluavros 6 Aevxododidou cvveréupOnoay 

22 npnuévot Kata yay otpatnyol. *AAKiBiddns 8% ameBl- 

Race rd orpdrevpa trys "Avdplas x@pas els Tavpecor" 

éxBonOnoavras 8¢ rovs ’Avdplouvs érpéavto Kal xaré- 

kAeoay els thv méAw Kal tivas dméxtTewvay ov TOAAOUS 

93 kat tovs. Adxwras of atrdéOt Foav. "AAKiBiddns 8e 

tponaidy te éotnoe cai pelvas avtod éAlyas nyépas 
éxAevoen els Sdpov, xaxeOev Sppa@pevos emodr€pet. 


HELLENICA 1,C. 5. | 73 


CHAPTER V. 


Lysander ts appointed S. partan admiral and collects a fleet, 408-407 
of 70 ships at Ephesus, where he watts till Cyrus’ arrival B.C. 
at Sardis. 


Ot 5¢ Aaxedarpdrioe mpdrepoy TovTwy ov TOAA@ xpovy 
Kparnownnlda tis vavapxlas mapeAnAvdvias Avcavdpoy 
ééireupay vadvapyov. 6& b& adixcpevos els ‘Pédoy Kat 
vais éxeiOev AaBadv, els KG. xal MlAnroy émdevoer, 
éxeidev 8 els "Eqecor, cal éxet Cuewe vads éywv éBdo- 

" pixovra péxpt ob Kipos els Sdpders adlxero. - eet 8’ 2 
fixev, dvéBn mpds adroy ovv rots éx Aaxedalyoros mpéc- 
Beow. évradda 87 xard Te Tod Trooadéprovs édeyov & 
metrounkas etn, adtod re Kipou édéovro os Apoeuporar oy 
mpos Tov méAEpov yevér Oat. 


Lysander obtains from Cyrus promises of vigorous support 
and increased pay for the Peloponnesians. 

Kipos 8& tov te marépa &pn tadra émeoraAkévat Kai 3 
airés ovx GAN’ éyvwxévat, GAAA TavTa Tonoew Exwy | 
de ijxew TdAavra mevraxdcia’ éay be Tatra éxdlan, Tots 
lois xpyjoecOar pn, & 6 marhp aprp édwxev édy be 
kal tara, ad roy Opdvoy caraxdWew ed’ ob éxdOnro, 
dvra dpyupody Kat xpvoody. of 8& radr’ emyvovy Kala 
éxéXevoy adroyv raga to vatrn dpaxprny ’Arrixyy, d:- 
ddoxovres Ste dv ovros 6 procOds yévnrat, of trav ’AOn- 
valwy vadrar amoAchpouoi ras vats, cal pelw yprpara 
dvaddoe. 6 5¢ Kadds pev Edn adrods Adyeww, ov dv- 5 
vatoy 8 elvat tap’ & Baoireds eréorethev ait@ GAAa 
— mouiy. evar 32 Kal ras cvvOjKxas ofrws exovcas, Tpid- 
KovTa pvas éxdorn vnt rod pnvods &ddvat, dadoas dv 


74 | HELLENICA I,C. 5. 


408-407 BovrAwvrat rpépervy Aaxedaypdriot. 6 8& Avoavidpos rédre 
oe 6 Mey éoraryce pera 8e 7d detmvoy, émet aire mpoTmioy 6 
Kipos jpero rl av pddcota xaplCorro ody, etrev Gre El 

7 mpos Tov pucOdy éxdotp vatrn dBodrdv mpoobelns. ex 

8¢ rovrov rérrapes GBodAot Hv 6 pucbds, mpdrepoy Se 
TptdBorov, Kal Tév Te mpovperrAdpevoy dmédwxe Kai ere 

pnvos mpovdoxer, Sorte TO oTpdrevua TOAD mpobvporeEpov 

etvat. ? . : 


The Athenians in despair send envoys to Cyrus, but he 
refuses to see them. Lysander had now go ships at 
Ephesus. 


& Of 8% ’AOnvaio: dxovovres tatra dbvpws pev etxor, 
éreutroy de mpds Tov Kipov mpéoBets 31a Trccadepvovs. 
9 6 88 ob mpocedéxero, deouévov Ticcadépvors Kal A€yov- 
ros, &mep abrds érroles meoOels bm AAKiBiddou, cKoTety 
Sras tév “EAAjver pyde ofrives loxvpot dow, GAAQ 
10 mdvres dodeveis, abrol ev atrots oraciaCovres. Kal 
6 pev Avoavdpos, éret adt@ 1d vavTixdy ovvereraxTo, 
dvedxicas tas ev tH ’Edécw otcas vais éeverjxovta 
novxiay yyev, émoxevd cov kat dvayriywy airas. 


Alcibiades crosses to Phocaea to visit Thrasybulus, leaving 
his fieet at Samos, in charge of Antiochus, with ‘strict 
orders not to fight. But Antiochus disobeys, and draws on 
a general engagement at Notium, in which he ts defeated 
by Lysander with a loss of 15 ships. 


1L ’AAKiBiddns 88 dxovoas OpactBovaor é€ ‘EAAno7ov- 

eee tov qKovta texlCew Pédxasay dvemrAevce pds adrov, 

April. KaTaAim@y emi rats vavoly Avrloxoy tov abrod KuBep- 
wTnv, émorelrAas pi emimAciy eat ras Avodvdpov vais. 

12 ‘O 8% ’Avrioxos TH TE abrod yni Kai GAAn éx Norlov 





HELLENICA I, ©. 5. 75 


els Tov Atpéva Tav ’Edeclwy elomAevoas map’ abras Tas 407-406 
mpspas tov Avodvdpov vedv mapémra. 6 8 Avcavdpos 13 sca 
TO pey mpGroy dAlyas tay vedv KkabedrAKvoas edlwxey 
atrov, émel 8& of "AOnvaio. re “Avridx@ éBonOovy 
marcloot vavol, tére 87 Kat mdoas ovvrdgas émémAet. 

wera 8% radra Kat of AOnvator éx rod Noriov xadeAxv- | 
cartes Tas AowTas Tpinpers avyjxOnoay, ws ExacTos irot- 

fev. éx rovrov 8 évavpaynoay of pev év rage, of 5214 
"A@nvaior Sveomappévats tats vavol, péxpt ov epvyor 
dmodécavres tevrekaidexa Tpinpers. tdv 5& dvdpav ot 

pev mrEloTron eépuyor, of 8 eCwypyOnoav. Advoavdpos 

8¢ tds te vais dvakaBov xal tpdmaoy orjoas én 

tod Norlov drémAevoev els "Edecor, of 8 ’A@nvator els | 
ie 


‘On his return to Samos Alcibiades tries in vain to renew 
the battle and avenge the defeat. 

Mera 8 ratra "AAKiBiddns éAddy els Sdpov avy On 15 
rais vavoly andoas én rov Apéva tav "Eq*ectwr, xat 
mpo Tod oTduaros mapéragev, ef Tis BovAotTo vavpayety. 
évrevdy) 3¢ Avoavdpos ovx dvraviyaye 8a Td ToAAats 
. vavoly édarrotaba, arénAevoey els Sdyor. Aaxedat-- 
povior Se daly 6 Sorepov alpodor AeAdlnor xat Hidva. 


‘On hearing of this affair the Athenians at home choose ten 
other generals in place of Alcibiades, who, finding himself 
unpopular also with his fleet, sails away to the Chersonese. 

Of 8 ev ofk@ ’AOnvaior, ered) HyyéAOn 7 vavpaxla, 16 
xarenGs efxov to ’AAKiBiddy, oldpevor be’ Guererdy Te 
kat axpdreay dmodwAexévat tas vais, al orparnyovs 
etAovro &AAovs béxa, Kovwva, Atopédovra, Aéovra, 

TlepixAéa, "Epacwldnv, ’Aptotoxparn, *Apxéorparoy», 


76 HELLENICA I, C¢. 5. 


407-406 Tpwrduayov, @pdovddov, Aptoroyéyyn. *AAKiBiddns 
7 pev ovy movnpws Kat év rH oTpariG Pepopevos, AaBav 
TpLnpN play drémAevoev els cde els Ta éavtod 

relyn. 


Conon succeeds Alcibiades at Samos; he mans only 70 ships 
out of 100, and with them ravages the neighbouring 


coast. 

18 Mera dé ratra Kovwv éx tis “ Avdpov avy als etxe 
vavoiv elxoot Yngicapévenv ’AOnvalwy els Sdyov émrdrev- 
cey emt Td vautixdy. advtt 8% Kévewvos els “Avdpov 

19 érepipay Pavocbévn, rérrapas vats éxovra. obros Tept- 
Tuxav svoiy rpinpow Oovplawy édraBev abrots avdpdoe' 

"Kal tots pev alypaddrovs Amravras ednoav ’AOnvaior, 
tov 3& dpxovra avrév Awpiéa, dvra pév “Podvov, mdAat 
82 guydda é€ "AOnvav kal “Pddsov td *AOnvalwy Karte- 
Yndiopevev aitod Odvaroy Kat tov éxelvov cvyyevdy, 
moAtTevovta Tap avtots, édenoavtes adetoay ovde xpr- 

20 patra mpagdpevor. Kévwr 8 éne els rv Sdpov adlxero 
cal Td vautixoy xaréXaBev GOvpws exov, cvupmAnpdcas 
tpijpers EBdounKovra dytt r&v mpotépwr, ovody mAé€ov 
q) éxatdv, kai tavrais dvayaydpevos peta tov dAAwv 
orpatnyay, dAAore GAAn aroBalywy tis Trav wodeulwy 
x@pas éAncero. 


" Contemporary events in Sicily.’ 


21 Kal 6 émavros eAnyev, év § Kapynddnor els StxeAlav 
otparevoarres elxoot Kat Exarov Tpinpect Kat mens oTpa- 
Trias dedexa pupidow elAov Axpdyayta, Ayo, maxn wey 
qrrnbévres, mporxabe(opevor 5& Ema pihvas. | 





HELLENICA I, ¢. 6. 44 


CHAPTER VI. 


Callicratidas succeeds Lysander at Ephesus. His answer 406-405 
to Lysander’s empty boast. . 

Te 8 émidvre eres @ ff} Te wEAHN efénumev sissies April. 

‘ kal 6 wadatds THs > AOnvas ves év AOjnvats éverpycOn, 

[Tlirda pev edopedovros, dpyovros 8& KadAlov ’AOnrn- 

ow,| of Aaxedarpdrnor to Avodvdpe mapednrvddros 75 

Tob xpdvov [kal r@ modu TeTTdpwy Kal elxoow érdv| 

érepway emi ras vads KaAAtxpariday. dre 5 mapedidov2 - 

6 Avoavdpos tas vats, éXeye tO KaddArxparlda Gre 

Oadatroxpatwp te tapadidoln Kal vavpaxla vevixynkds. ° : 

6 8 abréy éxédevoev e€ ’Edeoou év dpiorepg Zdpov- 

tapatAevoavra, ob joay al tov ’AOnvalwy vies, év 

MiAjr@ mapadobvar tds vais, cal duodoyjoew Oadar- 

TOKPaTety. 


He increases his fleet to 140 vessels, and prepares for battle ; 
but finding himself traduced by Lysander’s friends, he 
assembles the Lacedaemonians and tells them that he had 
come only in obedience to the Spartan government, and 
was ready to return tf they so wished. 


Od dapévov 8% rod Avedvdpov troAumpaypovety GAAov 8 
dpxovros, aitos 6 KadAckparidas mpos als mapa Avedv- 
dpov €AaBe vavol mpocenAnpwoev ex Xlov cat ‘Pddov 
cal ddAodev ard tv cvppdxwv TevtjKovta vads. tav- 
tas St mdoas dOpolcas, ovocas Terrapdxoyra Kal éxardy, ‘ 
maperkevacero ws dmavtnodpevos Tots moAeulos. KaTa- 4 
paday 3 d76 tav Avodvdpov didrwy xaractracia(duevos, 
ov pdvoy anpoOvpws banperovvTwr, GAAG Kal d.aOpoodvy- 
twy éy tats wéAeow Sri Aaxedaiudyio. wéytora Tapa- 


78 HELLENICA If, C. 6. 


406-405 ainroey év Tp jade rovs vavdpxous, moAAdats 


B.C, 


4. 


dvemirndelwr ytyvopever xa dpre ovvidvray Tra vavtixd 
kat avOp@mots @s xpnetéoy ov ytyywoKdvtwr, anelpovs 
Oaddrrns wéutovtes Kal dyv@rtas Tots éxel, xwwdvvevorev 
Te Taety 1a TovTo, éx Tovrov 5¢ 6 KadAtxparibas ovy- 
kadéoas tots Aaxedaiovlwy éxet mapdyras éAeyev aitois . 
ro.dde. 

’"Epol yey dpxet otxos peéveww, xad elre Avoavopos etre 
&AXos Tis eumretpdrepos Tept Ta vavTixa BovAerat etvat, 
ov KwAvw 7d Kar eue eym 8 ind ris méAvAews emt ras 
vats Tweppeis ovx éxw Ti dAAO TOLd 7} TA KEeAEvdpEVA ws 


dv Svvwpa kpdticta. tyets 8% apds &. eyd tre gidori- 


podwat cal  médts quGv alridcerat, tore ydp adra 
Gomep kat éyd; cvpBovdrevere Ta Apiota tyiv doxodvra 
elvat wept rod éue évOdde pévew 7 olkade amomAciv 
épodyra Ta xabectGra évOdde. | 


Ihe malcontents thus quieted, he tries to get supplies from 
Cyrus, but failing, appeals to the Milesians for help, till 
money should come from Sparta, — 

Ovdevds 5 ToApjoavros dAAO Te elmeiy 7 Tots olkor 
melOccOat Toeiy re Op & ijt, CADDY Tapa Kipov 7ree’ 


7 puoOdv Tots vavrats’ 6 dt aire@ ele dv0 Hpépas emoyxetv. 


KadAcxparidas 8¢ GxOeodels Ti dvaBodAj Kai Tais eri ras 
Ovpas hoirjnoeciy, dpytobels kal elmav GOAwrdrovs elvat 
tous "EAAnvas, Stt BapBapous KoAaKevovow Evexa apyv- 
plov, ddoxwy te, Nv owOn olxade, xard ye Td avrod 
duvarov dradrAdkev "A@nvalovs cat Aaxedatpovious, arreé- 


g wAevoey eis MiAnrov' xdxetOev méuas tpijpes els 


Aaxedalyova ént yxphpara, éxxAnolay aOpolcas Tay 
Muanolwy rade etmev. 
"Epol pév, @ Migovot, dvdykn Tots old dpxovert 


HELLENICA I, ¢. 6. 79 


melOerOar’ tpas S€ eéya a£1G mpoOvpordrovs elvat els 406-405 
rov méAcnov 8a Td olxodvras év BapBdpos mrciora ® 
Kaka Hon bn abrav menovOdvar, det 8 tpas eknycicbat 9 

tots GAAots ovppdxots Smws av rdxtoTd Te Kal pddtora 
BrAdrrwoper Tors Trodeulovs, ws dv of ex Aaxedaluovos — 
fixwow, ods eyo emeya xpyuata Gfovtas, éwel 7a 10 
évOdde trdpxovra Avoavdpos Kipw dmodobs ws mepitra 

' évta olxeratr’ Kipos 5& éAOdyros euod én adrov det 
dveBdAderd pot biarexORvar, éyo 8 emt ras éxelvov 

Ovpas porray ovx eduvdunpy epavrov metoa. tmoxvod- 11 

pat 8 dyiv dvri rév cupBdvtwv jyiv dyaddv ev ro 
xpévy & dy éxeiva mpoodexdpeda xdpw afiav anodd- 

wew.. GAAG obv Tots Deois delfopev Tots BapBdpors rt 

kal dvev Tob éxelvovs Bav upd Ceww duvdpea tovs éxOpovs 
Tipwpeto Oat. Pepa cat, 


With the supplies so obtained, he sails to Chios and Lesbos, 
where he takes Methymna by storm, and captures many 
prisoners; all the Greeks he sets free except the Athenians. 

"Evel 8@ tatr’ efmev, dviotdpevot woAAol Kal wdAtota 12 
ot alrtadopevor évaytiodcbat dedudres elonyotvto mépov 

Xpnuarwv Kat avrol émayyeAAcuevor lala. AaBov se 

Tatra éxetvos cal éx Xlov mevtedpaxplay éExdorw Tov 

vavTév épodiacduevos émAevoe tHs Ado Bov eat Mndup- 

vay woAeplay ovoav. ov Bovdropévwy 8% tov Mnéup- 13 

valwy mpooxwpeiy, GAN’ éudpovpwy évrwv ’APnvalwy Kal 

TOy Ta mpaypata exdvrwv arrixi(6vrwyv, tpooBadrav 

aipet riy méAw Kara xpdros. Ta pev ovy xphpara 14 

navra dunptacay of otpatiGra, Ta 5é avdpdmosa mdavTa : ' 

ovynOporoev 6 KadAcxparldas els riy dyopdy, cal xedev- oe) 
dvTwy TGV cuppdxwy atroddcbat Kal ros MnOvpvaiovs 

ox ébn éavrod ye Epyovros ovdéva ‘EAAjver els 7d - 


80 © HELLENICA I, ¢. 6. 


406-405 éxelvyouv duvarov dvbpanobiobijvat, 7 8 torepalg tovs 
“15 Bey eventpous adie, tovs 5¢ trav "AOnvalwy dpovpods 
Kal Ta dvdpdmoba ta dovAa mdvra anédoto’ Kdvwve de 
elev Ort Tavoes avroy potyGvta THv OdAatTav. KaTidav 
8& atrov avayduevoy Gua tH Hyepa, edlwxey trorepvo- 
Liceul mevos Tov els Zdpov mAodv, Stas pi éxeioe Hiyor. 
| 


He chases Conon, returning towards Samos, tnto the. harbour 
of Mytilene, where he captures 30 of the Athenian ships, — 
and blockades the rest. Cyrus thereupon sends him money. 


16 =Kévwr 8 édpevye traits vavoty ed mA€ovaais bia TO éx 
-TOANGY TAnpwpatwy els drAlyas exAEAEX Par Tovs dplo- 
Tous épéras, kal xatadevyer els MutiAnuny tis AéoBov 
kal oy aiT@ Téy béxa orparnyav Aéwy Kai Epaowvidns. 
KadAckparidas de ovveroémAcvoen els Tov Aipéva, didKov 

17 vavoiy éxaroy kat EBdounKovra. Kovwv dé as &pOn tro 
tv Toveulov KataxwrvOels, jvayxdcOn vavpaxjoar 
mpos TS Ape, kal am@AEoE vads TpidKovTa’ oF 8e 
dvdpes els thy yhv anépvyov’ tas Se Aowrds Ty vedr, 

18 rerrapdxovra ovoas, td To Teixer avelAxvoe. KaddAt- 
xparldas 8& év TS Ampere Spyioduevos erodrdpxer éev- 
radda, rov éxmAovy éxwv. Kal kata yy peramepya- 
pevos tous MnOvpvatovs mavdnuel cal éx ras Xlov rd 
otpdrevpa deBlBace’ xphpard tre mapa Kupov aire 
nAGev. 


Conon by a stratagem contrives to send a ship to Athens 
with the news. In thirty days the Athenians equip a fleet 
of 110 vessels, manned by both slaves and free. 


19 ‘O 8 Kédvwy ézet éxodtopxetro Kal kata yhv Kal xara 
Oddarray, cat aolrov ovdandbev Fv edropioa, of be 
GvOpwiot woAAol éy TH méAE Foay Kal of "AOnvator ov 


HELLENICA I, C. 6. 81 


€BonOovy 1d Td pu) TWevOdver Oar Tara, kabeAKvoas TGy 406-405 
vedy Tas Apiora TAEovoas b00 etANpwoe mpd Hyépas, e€ con 
anacGv T&v vedv Tovs aplorous épéras exA€£as Kat rovs 
éemBdras els xolAnv vaby peraBiBdoas Kal Ta mapapp- enw «5 
pata wapaBaAov. Thy pev ovy Hpépav otrws avetyov, 20 
els 5& riyv éxmépay, eel oxdros ely, eEeBlBacer, Os pH 
KaradjAous elvat Tots modelos Tadra movodyTas. Téy- 
mtn d5¢ juépa eloOeuevor cira pérpia, ened) dn pécoy 
nuepas Hv Kat of époppodvres dAtydpws elyov cal enor 
dverravovro, éfémAevoay E£w Tod Amévos, Kal 7H pev ent 
“EAAnondvtov dppnoev, 7 S¢ els TO wéAayos. tév § 21 
ehoppotvtwy ws Exactor qvoryov, tds Te dyKUpas dto- 
KOmTToVTES Kal éyeipopevor €BonOovy rerapaypévos, TUX Ov- 
Tes ey TH yn aptotoToiotpevar’ eloBavTes d3e edlwxov 
thy els Td méAayos apopynoacay, cat dpa to HAl 
Svvovti karédaBov, kal KpaTnocavtes paxn, avadnodpevot 
dniyov els TO otpardmedov avrois dvdpdow. 8 emt 22 
Tov ‘EAAnordvtou duyotca vais drégvye, kal ddixopery 
els ras "AOnvas eEayyéAAet THY moAtopklay. Aropédav 
5 BonOdv Kévwvi trodtopxovpévw S0d5exa vavoly apul- 
gato els Tov evpimov Tov TGV MuTiAnvaiay. 6 3% Kad- 23 
AtxparlSas émumAevoas adtg eEalpuns déxa peyv Sv vedv 
€rtaBe, Acopedmv 8 Epvye tH Te adrod kat GAAn. of 58 24 
’"AOnvaios Ta yeyernuéva Kat THY toAtopKlay érel 7Kov- 
aay, eyndloavro Boney vavoiv éxardv Kal 8éxa, elo Be- 
Ba govres tous év tH HAtkla Svras Gravtas Kat dovdous 
kal édevdépous’ kai tAnpdoavtes tas déxa Kat éxardy 
éy tpidxovra fipépas amfpav. eloéBnoav Be cal trav | 
imméwy todAol. 


82 HELLENICA J, C. 6. 


406-405 Zhe Athenian fleet sails to Samos, and anchors at the 

B.C. Arginusae islands, mustering more than 150 strong. Cal- 

licratidas leaves 50 ships under Eteontcus at Mytilene, 

and sails to Cafe Malea with 120 ships to meet the 
Athenians. 


25 Mera radra dvnyOnqav els Sdpor, xaxetOev Dapulas vads 
é\aBov déxa’ 7Oporcay dé Kal GAAas tAclovs 7) TpidxovTa 
mapa Tov GAdAwv ovupdxwr, eloBalvey dvayxdcavres 
Gravras, dpolws 38 cal ef tives abrois Eruxov ew otoat. 
éyévovto 8% at macar mAclous 7 TevTnKovTa Kal éxarov. 

26 6 3¢ KadAixparldas dxovwr riyy Bondeay Hon ev Tayo 
ovoay, atTod pey Karédume wevTHKOVTA vads Kal Gpxovra 
’Eredvexoy, tats 8 elxoot cal éxardv dvayxOeis edeumvo- 
motetro THs AéoBov émt tH Madéa a&kpa advtiov ris 

27 MoriAnvns. tH 8 adr tpépg Ervxov kai of ’AOnvaioe 
Sermvotorodpevor ev tats "Apywotcas’ abrar 8 elo 

28 dyrlov ris AéoBov. tis b& vuxtos ldav Ta avpd, Kal 
tivwv arto efayyetAdvtwy Gre of AOnvatos elev, dvryero 
mept péoas vixtas, as é€amiwvaiws tpoonécor tdwp 8 
émtyevonevoy ToAU Kal Bpovrat duvex@Avoay Thy dvayw- 
ynv. émet 3% dvéoyev, Gua rH huepa Err em ras 
*Apytvovaas. 


BATTLE OF ARGINUSAE. 


Callicratidas refuses to fice before the superior numbers of the 
Athenians. The fight begins ; and when Callicratidas falls 
into the sea and ts drowned, the Peloponnesians fice to Chios 
and Phocaea with a loss of 69 ships. The Athenians retire 
to Arginusae with a loss of 25 ships. 


29 O18 ’AOnvaios dvravjyorto els TO TéAGYOS THO Evw- 
vip, Taparetaypevor Ode. "Aptoroxpdtns pev To evd- 
vupov éxwy Tyeiro mevtexaldexa vavol, pera 5¢ Tatra 


HELLENICA I, ¢. 6. 83 


Atouedmpv érépats mevrexaldexa’ émeréraxto 5¢ "Aptoro- 406-405 
xparet pey TlepuxAfjs, Atopédorrs ¢ Epacivldns* mapa dé ee 
Acopédovra of Sdpioe déxa vavoiv emi pias reraypévor’ 
éarparnyes 88 aitGy Sdyios dvdpare ‘Immevss ex duevat 

8 al rév ragidpxwv déxa, cal avrat ém puds* emt de 
ravrais al ray vavdpxwy Tpeis, kat ef tives GAAaL Foav 
ovppaxldes. Td dé deftdv Képas TIpwrdéuaxos efxe mev- 30 
rexaidexa vavol mapa 8 airov OpdaovaAdos érépats mev- 
texaldexa’ émeréraxto 5¢ TIpwropdxy pev Avolas, éxov 
ras tras vais, OpactdAdw 8% ’Apictoyévns. ofrw 8 81 
érdy Oncay, va ph diéxmAovy Sidoter" xeipov yap exdeov. 

at 8& Trav Aaxedapovlwy ‘dyrireraypévar foay a&maca 
émt puds @s mpds SiéxtAovy xat wepltAovy TapecKevac- 
pévat, 81a Td BéATiov mAciv.. elxe 5¢ 7d SeLtov Képas 
KadAixparldas. “Eppwy 5@ Meyapets 6 re Kaddtxpa- 32 
rida xuBepvdy ele mpds adrov Ort etn KadAGs éyov dm0- 
mAcdoa’ at ydp Tpinpers TGv ’AOnvalwy TodAAG@ TAeloves 
joay. Kadduxparidas d¢ eiren Srey Sadpryn ovdev pr 
kdxtoy olketrat attod amobavovros, pevyew 8 aloypov 
épy etvat. pera d& radra évavpdynoay ypdvov Ttodvr, 33 
mp@tov pev GOpdat, érerra b¢ diecxedaopéevar. emel dE 
KaAdcxparidas re éuBadrovons Tis vews amotecor els 
THV Oddrarrav npavladn TIpwrdépayds te kat of per atrod 
T@ SeEi@ Td evdvupoy evixnoay, evredOey guy} Tov 
Ilekomovynolwv éyévero els Xlov, wAelorwy be xa els 
Pédxarav' of Se ’APnvato. mad els Tas "Apywvovcas 
katétAevoay. am@dovro be tév pev ’AOnvalwy vijes 34 
mévte kal elxoow avtois avdpdow éxrds é6Alywy Tov 
mpos Thy yy mpocevexOevtwr, tGv && TleAorovynoiwv 
Aaxwvixal pev évvéa, trav tacdév ovoGy déxa, Tay 8 
dANwy cuppaxwv wAclous 7 EEqxovta. 


F 2 





84 HELLENICA I, Cc. 6. 


406-405 The Athenian generals commission Theramenes and other 
B.C. . : 
officers to rescue the crews of their sunken vessels with 

47 vessels, while they themselves sail against Eteonicus at 
Mytilene. But both projects are prevented by a storm. 


35 “Edofe 8% cal rots tév ’AOnvalwy atparnyots éxra 
pev kal rerrapdkovta vavot Onpapyévn te Kal OpacvBov- 
Aov Tpinpdpxous Gvras Kal Trav tagidpywy tivads Atv 
emt tas xaradeduxvlas vais Kai tovs én’ aitav dvOpd- 
movs, tais 8€ GAAats emt ras per "Ereovixov rn Mure- 
Maen ehoppoticas. tadta 8€ BovAopévous orety dvepos 
Kat xerpeoy duexdAvoev avrovs péyas yevdpevos TpdmaLov 
5@ orjoavtes avrod nvAlCovto. 


Eteonicus, by spreading false news of a victory, succeeds tn 
despatching his fleet to Chios, and in marching himself to 
Methymna. 


36 To 8 ’Ereovikm 6 tanperixds KéAns mdavra e&nyyere 
Ta wept THY vavpaxlay. 6 5é airov mdAw e&émeuwev 
elzav tots evodot ovwmy exmdrely kai pndevi d:aréyerOat, 
mapaxphpa S& avis mAety els TO éavTaGy orTparomedov 
é€orepavwpevors kal Bodvras rt KadAtxparlédas vevlxyxe 
vavpaxev xat bre al rdv ’AOnvalwy vies droAdAaow 

37 dracat. kai of wey tadr’ érolovy' avros 8°, émetdy exet- 
vou karétAeov, €Ove Ta evayyéALa, Kal Tols orparidras 
mapyyyere SermvoToretoOat, Kat Trois éumdpots Ta xpy- 
para own evOeuevovs els ta tAOta dmomA€iv els Xlov, 
qv Se TO meine ovpioy, Kal Tas Tpinpers THY raxlorqy. 
autos 8@ T6 meCov anjyev els Thy M7Ovpvay, TO oTpa- 
rénedoy éumpnoas. 


HELLENICA I, CC. 6, 7. 85 


Conon meets the Athenian fleet with the news about Eteonicus, 406-405 
The fleet sails to Mytilene, makes an attempt on Chios, ave B.C. 
finally returns to Samos. 


Kévwv 8% xadeAxioas Tas vais, émet of Te modgutor 38 
dmededpdxecay Kal 6 dvepos ebdialrepos fv, dnavricas 
tots *“AOnvalois dn avnypéevos ex taév *Apywovody 
éppace Ta tept tod "Ereovixov. of 8¢ ’AOnvaia xaré- 
mAevoay els thy MuriAjvny, éxeidev 8 éenaviyOnoay 
els thy Xlov, xat ovdéy diampagduevor damémAcvoay 
emt Xdpov. os 


CHAPTER VII. 


’ The Athenian generals are replaced by ten others, Conon 


alone being re-elected. Of the six who returned to Athens, 
Evasinides ts accused by Archedemus of corrupt practices, 
and sentenced by the court to imprisonment. 


Oi & év olkw rovrovs wey Tots otparnyovs eravoay 
mAnv Kévwvos: mpos 5 Todt efrovto Adefuavrov Kat 
tplrov Piroxdéa. Tov S€ vavpaxynodvrwy orparnyav 
TIpwréuaxyos pev xat “Apioroyévns otx am7ydOoy els 
’"AOnvas, Tay 8 @€ xaramAevodvrwv, TepixAcovs kal 
Avopedovros cat Avolov cat ’Apicroxpdrovs xat @pa- 
ovAAov xal ’Epaowwldov, ’Apxédnuos 6 rod Syuou tére 
mpoeoTnkas éy “AOnvais kal THs duwBeAlas émipedcpevos 
"Epacwwidn émBodrnv émiBadrov xarnydpet év duxaotyplo, -' , 
hacker é& “EAAnonévrov abrov éxewv xpyuata évta tod 
dnpov' Katnydper 5¢ Kal wept THs oTpatnylias. Kat édo€e 
T@ Suxaoryply djoat Tov ’Epaowldyv. 


86 HELLENICA I, ¢. 9. 


406-405 Zhe other generals also, after informing the Senate about the 


B.C. 


(357) 


battle and the storm, are arrested by its order. 


Mera 8 ratra év rh Bovdn dunyodvro of orparnyot 
mepl te THS vavpaxlas Kat Tod peyebovs Tod yeEGvos. 
Tipoxparovs 8 elmdvros Ste cai rovs dAAovus xpy 5eevras 
els Tov Sjpov mapadoOjvat, 7 BovaAr édnce. 


Before the Assembly Theramenes and others attack the 
generals for not having rescued the shipwrecked crews, 
alleging as evidence the official despatch. 

Mera d¢ radra éxxAnoia éyévero, ev 7 TOY oTpaTnySv 
Katnydpouy GAdot Te kal Onpapévns pddrrora,dixalovs elvat 
Adyov brocyxety Sudtt odx avelAovTo Tovs vavayovs. srt 
wey yap obdevds GAAov xabyrrovto emioroAjy éredelxve 
paptupioy jv emepwav of otparnyot els thy BovdAry 
kal els Tov Sjpov, GAAO ovdey alridpevor | TOY YELpGva. 


In defence the generals recount the facts, bringing forward 
some of the satlors as witnesses. 


Mera ratra 3¢ of orparnyot Bpaxéws Exacros amedo- 
ynoaro, ov yap mpouvTeOn odiot Adyo a Tov voor, 
kal Ta mempaypeva Sinyodvro, Ste avrol pev emt rods 

4 / XN S 3 , nn a 
moAepiovs mA€orev, THY S& dvalpeoty TSv vavaydv 
mpooTaceray TOY Tpinpdpxwy avdpaow ixavots cai éorpa- 
Tnynkdow 75n, Onpapever cat OpacvBovdAw xal dAdors 


6 Totovrots’ Kal elmep yé Tivas déoL, wEpi THs avaipécews 


ovdéva GAAov exew adrovs altidcacba 7H Tovrovs ols 
mpooeTayxOn. Kal ovx Sri ye KaTnyopodow nuar, pacar, 
wevodpeOa pdoxovres avtovs airlovs elvat, aAAQ TO 
péyeOos Tod xetuGvos etvar TO Kwddoay Ti dvalpeoty. 
rovrwy 5& pdptupas mapelyovto rovs KuBepyytas Kat 
ddAovs. Tay cvuptAEdvTwY ToAAOvs. 








HELLENICA I, ©. 7. 87 


The defence is favourably received, but, it being dark, the 406-405 
assembly adjourns without a vote being taken, after com- ®B.©. 
misstoning the Senate to bring forward a proposal as to the 
procedure of the trial. 


Tovadra Adyovres EretOov tov Sjuov' €BovdrAovro Sé 7 
moAdal Tév ldiwrdv éyyvacbat dnorduevor: Gofe BF wL 
dvaBaréabat els érépay exxAnotay" TOTE yap OWe Fy Kat 
! ras xelpas ovk dy Kadedpwv thy 5& Bovdrjy mpoBovdrcv- 
gacap eloeveyxety Stw tpdmw of dvdpes xplvowro. 


Theramenes avatls himself of the Apaturia to excite the 
Athenians against the accused. 


Mera 52 tatra éylyvero ’Ararovpia, év ols of TE 8 
narépes kat of avyyevets otverot opiow aitots. of ody Novem- 
wept tov Qnpapévn mapecxedacay avOpdmovs pédava P& 406. 
iudria éxovras xal éy yp@ Kexappévous modAovs év 

- “~ € iy A \ ef e XN 
TavTn TH éoptn, va mpos THyv éxxAnolay ijKotev, ws 7 
ovyyeveis Gvtes TOV ATOAWACTwD, Kat KadAlevoy ére- 
aay éy TH BovAn Karnyopety TGV oTpaTnyGv. 


At the second meeting of the Assembly Callixenus introduces 
the proposal of the Senate, that the people should decide, 
without further hearing, upon all the accused at once by 
a single vote. 


"Evreddev éxxAnolay érolouy, els hv 4 Bova} elojveyxe 9 
Thy EauTns yuouny Kaddr£évov eladvtos ryvie’ ’ Ered?) 
TOY TE KaTNyOpOvYTWY KaTa TOY oTpaTyyGy Kal éxelvwv 
drodoyounevey év TH mporépg exxAnolg axynxdact, diayry- (s $s) 


dloacbar AOnvalovs aravras xara puAds’ Oeivat dé els 


mrs) 


(355) 


88 'HELLENICA I, ©. 9. 


406-405 THY dvdny éxdotny do tdpias’ ed’ Exdorn 88 TH pvd7 


Knpuka Knpvrrewy, Sto doxotcw adixeiy of orparnyot ovK 
dveddpevot Tovs vikjoavras éy TH vavpaxia, els Thy 

10 mporépay YrnploacGat, Sr S& pn, els Thy torépay’ dy be 
dd€wow adixety, Oavdto (npiGoat xal rots Evdexa mapa- 
dodvat kal Ta xpnuara Snpocredoa, 7d 8 emidexarov Tis 

11 Oeod elvar. mapnrde 8é tis els THY exxAnolay ddcKwv 
éni redxous dAdirwy cwiijvar émoreddcv 8 aire 
ToUs AToAALpEvOUS, Cav THO, anayyetAat TE Sjue, Ste 
of otparnyot ovx aveidovto tots dplorovs trtp tis 
marpldes yevouevovs. 


Euryptolemus and others threaten to indict Callixenus 
proposal as unconstitutional, but are compelled to with- 
draw their threat. ' 


12 Tov 8 Kaddlfevoy mpocexadécavro mapdvopa dc- 
Kovtes yeypapévat EvdpunrdAeuds te 6 Tetotdvaxros 
kat GAAor tives. Tod 58 Sypov Enos tadra emjvouv, rd Be 
TAGs €Bda dewdv elvar ef py tis edoer Tov djyov 

18 mparrew' § dv BovAnra. kal exit rovrots elndvros 
Avxloxov kat rovrovs TH abtn Wade KplvecOat imep Kat 
TOUS oTpaTnyoUs, ay yp) APGar THY KAfowy, éwePopvByoce 
madd 6 dxAos, kal HvayxdcOnoay dad.évas Tas KAnoes. 


The Prytanes refuse to put the question to the vote, but are 
all frightened into submission except Socrates. 


14 Téy && mputdavedy tivwy ov dackdvrwy mpobjoew 
rHy diangioww Tapa Toy vdépov, avOts KadAlLevos dvaBas 
karnydpet atrGv Ta aird. of d& éBdwy Kadrely Tovs ov 

15 pdoxovras. of b& mpuTdvers HoBynOevres @poAdyouy TdvTES 
mpoOncey mARY Lwxpdtovs tod LTwdpovicxov' ovtos 3’ 
ov én GAA’ 7} kata vopoy TdvTa Tonoey. 


HELLENICA I, C. 7. 89 


SPEECH OF EURYPTOLEMUS. 406-405 


‘ Pericles and Diomedon were chiefly to blame, because they had 
persuaded their colleagues not to mention in their despatch 
the orders they had given to Theramenes and others to 
rescue the crews. 


Mera 8% raira dvaBas Eipumrodepos Creep ixép Trav 16 
otparnyGv tTabe. : 

Ta pev xarnyopjcwv, ® dvdipes ’AOnvain, dvéBnv 
évOade TlepuxAéovs dvayxatov pou Gyros Kal émurndetov 
wat Avopédovros plrov, ra 8 drepatoAoynodpevos, Ta be 
ovpBovrctowy & po. doxel &piora evar amdon TH TAL. 
KaTiyop@ pev ovy avtav Oru émecoay Tovs ocvvapxovtas 17 
Bovdopévovs méutrew ypdppara TH Te BovdAf Kat duty dre 
énéragay To Onpapeéver cal OpacvBotvrAw rerrapdxovra 
kal émrda tpijperin dvedéoOat Tovs vavayods, of Se obx 
dveldovro. tra viv Thy alrlay xowhy exovow éexelvwy 18 
isla dpaprévrwr, xal dvrl ris rére pidavOpwntas viv bn’ 
exelvwy re kal trivwy &AAwY emi Bovdevduevor xwvdvved- 
ovow a7oAéo Oa. 


‘Two courses were open to the Athenians: the generals might 

' be tried, either before the assembly according to the decree 
of Cannonus, or before a court according to the law against 
sacrilege and treason. 


Oix dv tpets yé por wetOnobe ta Slxeata Kal Sora 109. 
movooytes, Kal SOev pdAdvota TaAnOR TevoecOe Kal ov 
petavonoavtes torepoyv eipnoere odas avrovs hpaptn- 
xétas TA péytota els Oeovs Te kal tas avrovs. cup- 
Bovretw 8 syiv, év ols 008 dm’ euod ov6 tm’ GddAov 
ovdevds gor eLatrarnOjvar tyas, Kat Tovs ddiKodyras 
elddres koAdoeobe } av BovAnode dixn, kai Gua mdvras 
kat xaé’ &va &xacrov, el uy mAéov, GAAQ play Huépay 


go HELLENICA I, ©. 4. 


eee ddvres avtots imtp aitéyv anoAoyjoacba, pn dAdoLs 
"a9 padAov morevovtes 7) tulv avrots. tote S€, @ dvdpes 
"AOnvaior, mavres Sti 7d Kavywvod Whgiopd éeoriv 
loyupdrarov, 3 KeAdever, édy tis Tov ’AOnvalwoy djpov 
6s 357) Gdixn, dedeudvoy arodicety ev TO Syuw, Kal éav Kara- 
yuwcdy ddiKeiy, drobaveiv els To Bapadpov éuBAnOévra, 
Ta d¢ xpnpara avrod dnpevOjvar cal ris Oeod Td émdé- 
21 xaroy etvat. Kata rodro TO Widiopa KeAevw xpiverdar 
Tous otpatnyovs cat vy Ala, dy tpiv ye doxh, mporov 
[leptxAda rov éuot mpoojxovta’ aicxpdv ydp pol éorw 
éxetvov mept mAclovos toretcOar 7 THv SAnv qToALD. 
92 rotro 8 el BovAccbe, kata tévde Tov vdpov Kplvare, Ss 
éoriv emt rots tepoovAots cat mpoddrats, édv tis 7) THY 
médw Tpodid@ 7 Ta lepa KA€mTy, KpiOévra ev dxacrnply, 
dy xarayvooOy, i tadivar éy rh Artix, ta 8 xpyuara 

avTod dnpdota etvat. 


‘ But in either case they ought to be tried fairly and separately. 
Undue haste ought to be avoided, especially in the case of 
generals who had deserved so well of their country. 

28 Tovrwy dmorépm BovArcecbe, & avdpes *AOnvaio, TO 
vopy KpwécOwy of dvdipes xara Eva Exacrov denpnuévov 
Tis Nuepas tpiav pepGv, Evds pev ev J ovddAdyerOar 
Spas det cal SscayynpllecOa, édv re adixeiy SoxGouv edv 
te pn, érépov 8 évy @ Karnyopijoa, érépov 3’ dv 
24 dmoAoyncacba. TovTwy dé yryvopevwy of pev GdixodyTes © 
revfovta. THs peylorns Tywpias, of 8 dvalrion eAcvde- 
pwOjcovra. tp tyadv, ® "A@nvaior, kal odx ddcKxodvres 
25 dmodotprat. tpeis 5 xara Tov vdpov ‘eboeBodvres Kat 
evopxoovres xpiveire Kal ov ovpmoAeunoere Aaxedatpo- 
vlows Tovs éxeivous EBdopynKovTa vats adeAopevovs Kat 


vevixnxdtas, tovtovs amoAAvvres axplrovs mapa Tov 


HELLENICA I, ©. 7. gI 


“4 
vopov. tl && Kat Sedidres opddpa obrws énelyeobe ; 7} 406-405 


BH obx tyets dv dy BovAnode dmoxrelvnte Kal édevdepd- | BS: 
ante, dy xara Tov vdopov xpivyte, GAN ovx, dv mapa Tov 
vopov, w@omep KadAl€evos ryv Bovdny éneoev eis Tov 

djpov eloeveyxeiy pia Wd ; GAA’ tows dv riva Kal ovK 37 
air.ov dvra amoxreivaite, petapeAjoat dé torepoy dva- | 
punoOnre @s drAyevoy Kai dvodedes dn eorl, apos 8 ere 

kal wept Oavdrov dvOpdmov jpaptynkdres. dewd 8 dv as 
mowmoare, eb Aptordpx pev mpdTepoy Tov d7j0v KatTa- 
Avoptt, efra 8& Olvdny apodiddvtt OnBators oreulors {35 5) 
ovaw, é0re nucpay amoAoynoacba 7 eBovAeTo Kal 

TaAAG Kata Tov vopov Tpovbere, TOUS 5 OTpaTHyoUs TOUS 
ndvra tiv Kara yuounv mpagavras, vixnoavras 88 Tovs 
modeulovs, Tv aitav to’rwy atocTepycere. i) dpeis ap 

ye, @ AOnvaio, GAd’ éavtGy dvras rots vopous, bu’ obs 
pddtora péytotol éore, puAdrropvtes, dvev rovTwy pndev 
mpatrew Treipacde. 


‘7o return to the facts: Diomedon proposed to rescue the 
crews, Erasinides to sail against the enemy, Thrasyllus to 
do both by dividing the fleet. 


’"EmavéAOere 5& kal én’ attra Ta mpaypata Kad’ & Kat 
ai duapriat doxoto. yeyevncOat Tots orparnyots. émet 
yap Kpatnoavres TH vavpaxlg els Thy yhv KarémAcvoay, 
| Acopédav pev éxédevey avaxOévras ent xépws Amavras 
dvatpetobas Ta vavdyta Kal Tovs vavayous, Epacwléns 8’ 
emt rovs mpds MuriAnuny modeulous thy taxlorny mArciy 
Gmravras’ OpdovdAdos be auddrepa edn yevérOar, av ras 
pev avtod xaraAlmwot, tais b€ emt rovs ToAEulous 
TAEWOL. 


92 HELLENICA J, ¢. 7. 


406-405 ‘According to Thrasyllus’ proposal 47 vessels were told 
B.C. off to rescue the crews, and the rest were to sail against 
the enemy, but the storm prevented both projects. Many 

survivors would witness to the truth of this. 

30 Kail dofdvtwy rovrwy xaradineiy tpeis vats Exacrov 
éx THs avTod cuppoplas, TSv oTpaTnyGv GKT® dvTwy, Kai 
Tas Tov Tagidpxwy séxa Kal Tas Saplwy déxa kat Tas 
TOV vavapxwy Tpeis’ atrar &macat ylyvovta éxra cal 
TeTTAapaKovTa, TéeTTapes Tept ExdoTyy vaiy Tov atodw- 

81 Avy dddexa ovcGr. TOv 8? KaraderpOevtTwy Tpinpdpxwv 
joayv kat OpactBovdros Kai Onpapévns, ds ev tH mporépa 
éxxAnola xarnydépes Tov oTparnyav. tais 5& ddAas 
vavoiv émheov emt ras toAeulas. ti rovTwy ody txavds 
Kal Kad@s émpagtay ; otKxody dixavoy Ta wev Tpods Tovs 
moAeulous py KAaAGS TpayxOevra Tovs mpds TOVTOUS TAx- 
Oévras bréxey Adyov, Tovs‘de mpds Tiv davalpeoww, pH 
moimnoavras & of orparnyol éxeAevoay, 8udTt ovK dveiAovTo 

32'xplverOat. Tocotroy 3 exw elrety tmep duporépwv Sri 
6 xeon drexodvoe pndty mpagar dv of otparnyot tape- 
KeXevoavro. TovTwy & pdprupes of cwOevTes And Tod 
avroparou, dy els Tév nueTeépwy otparnyay emt Kara 
Svons veds d1acwbels, dv KeAcvover TH ait Wide 
kpiverOat, kal avroy Tore dedpevoy avaipécews, rep 
TOUS Ov TpafavTas TA TpooTayGErTa. 


‘On all grounds therefore the generals ought to be acquitted.’ 


33 - My rolvuv, ® dvdpes ’"AOnvato, dvrt piv ris vikns cat 
tis edtuxlas Spora wowjonre tots Hrrnpévos Te Kal 
drvxodow, avri 8& Tay ex Jeod dvayxalwy ayvwpovely 
ddfnTe, mpodociay Katayvovres dvti ths advvaplas, odx 
ixavovs yevouévous dia Tov XEmwva Tpagar Ta MpooTayx- 
Gévra’ GAAG TOAY duxaidrepov oTEddvors yepalpew Tovs 








= 





HELLENICA I, ¢. 7: 93 


vixGvras 7 Oavdro Cyu@iv tovnpois avOpw@ois TeL0o- 406-405 
pévovs. es 


At first the people accept Euryptolemus proposal to try the 
generals separately, according to the decree of Cannonus ; 
but at a second vote the Senate's proposal is preferred, and 
the eight generals are condemned and six of them executed. 
Not long afterwards the people repent of the injustice. 


Tatr’ elxav Evpunrcdeuos eéypae yvounv xara 76 34 
Kavywvod Widiopa xplvecOat Tovs dvipas dixa Exacrov’ 
7 8@ THs Bovdrs yw ya Wide Gmavras xpivery. Tovrwv 
S& d1axeiporovovpévwy Td pky TpOrov expwav Thy 
EvputroA€pov’ UaoueraHeuae 8& Mevexddovs cat médAw Anh .¢- 
didyetporovlas yevouevns expwvay Thy Ths BovAjs. «Kat 
peta TadTa kateyndleavto TGy vavpaxynoavtwy oTpatn- 
yOv 6xt® dvtwv’ améBavoy Se of mapdvtes EF. Kali ov 35 
TOAA@ xpdvm orepoy perepede rots *AOnvalois, Kar 
éeynploavro, ofrives tov dijyov efnmdrnoav, mpoBordas «.. - ' 
aitay elvat, kal éyyunras xaraoricat, Ews dv kpiOdour, 
etvar 8¢ Kal KadAlfevoy rovrwr. ampovBrAnOnoay be Kal 
GAAo. téerrapes, Kal ed€Onoav tnd tév eyyuncapéven. . 
Borepov S€ ardoeds Twos yevouerns, ev 7 KAeopav — 
ameavev, améedpacay ovror, mply xpiOjvar’ KadAlfevos 
5 xareAOwv Bre cal of éx Tleupaids els 76 dorv, prcov- 
“pevos 07d TaVTwY Aime aTéOavev. 


94° HELLENICA II, ©. 1. 


Boox HII. 


CHAPTER I. 


406-405 Zhe Peloponnesian soldiers at Chios, hard pressed by want, 
B.C. Jorm a plan to sack the city. Eteonicus discovers the plot, 
and by prompt measures puts it down. He asks and 

obtains from the Chians a contribution of money. 


Oi dé év rH Xl pera rod *Ereovixov orpari@rat 

dvres, Ews prev O€pos Hv, amd Te THS Hpas érpépovro xat 
October épya(dpevor prcbod Kata THy x@pay' eet Se yemdr 
‘as éyévero kal tpodyny ovK« elxov yupuvol te joav kal dvv- 


nddntot, avvloravto aAAnAots Kal ovver(Oevto ws TH © 


Xio émOnoduevor’ ols 8& radra dpéoxor Kddapov de- 
2 pew eddxet, va GAAHAOS pdOorey Sada0t elnoav. T- 
Odpevos 5€ Td otvOnua 6 ’Eredvixos, andépws peév elxe 
tl xp@To T@ Tpaypare 51a TO TAHOOS TGV Kadaunddpwv" 
TO TE yap €x Tod éugavods emyxeipnoa oparepoy eddxer 
elvat, py els ta Sava 6punowot cal Thy mwoAW KaTa- 
oxovres Kal woAgutoe yevduevor AmoAgowot TdvTa Ta 
mpaypata, av Kpatjowot, T6 T ad droAAtvat dvOpaTovs 
ovppaxovs TodAovs dervov ealvero etvat, pH TLva Kat 
els Tous dAAovs “EAAnvas b:aBoAnv cxotev cal of orpa- 
3Ti@Ta dSvovor Tpds Ta TPadypata wow’ dvadaBov se 
pe@’ éavtod advdpas mevrexaidexa eyyeipldia exovtas 
émopevero KaTa THY mdALv, Kal évTvydv Tin dpOad- 
peavtTe. avOpdaw amovtt @& larpetov, xdAapov éxovtt, 
4 améktewe. OoptBov de yevopuévov kal épwrdvrwy TiWwadv 
dia ri dmrébavey 6 dvOpwros, mapayyéAAew éxédevev 6 





-—s ae 





HELLENICA II, ©. 1. 95 


’"Eredvexos, Ste Tov xdapoy clxe. kata 5& Thy BapGy 406-405 
B.C. 


yeAlay épplarovy mavres Saou elxov Tovs KaAdpous, det 
6 axovwv ded:as py 6POeln éxwv. pera 8% Tadra 6 
Eredvixos ovyxadécas. tots Xlovs xpyyata éxédevce 
ovveveyxeiv, Stws of vatra, AdBwor picOdv Kal py 
vewreplowal tu of b& elojveyxav’ Gua de els Tas vais 
éonunvey eloBalvew mpocioy dé év péper tap éExdotnv 
vady mapeOdppuvé te Kal mapyvet TOAAG, OS TOD yeyern- 
pévov ovdey eldds, Kal picOdv Exdor@ pnvds dedoxe. 


On the appeal of her Asiatic allies, supported by envoys from 
Cyrus, Sparta appoints Lysander to be secretary and 
Aracus to be admiral of the fieet. 


Mera 8é ratra of Xiot cal of AAO’ ovppaxot ova- 
Aeyévres els "Eqerov éBovAevcavto rept TOv éveortnKd- 
‘tev mpaypatov mréumew els Aaxedaluova mpéoBes Taira 
te épotvtras xat Avcavipov alrncovras émi rds vais, «db 
hepopevov Tapa Tois cvppdyxots Kata THY TpoTEpay vavap- 
xlav, bre cat ri év Norlw évixnoe vavpaxtav. kat ate- 
Tmeuponoav mpéa Bets, ovv avrots 5é kal mapa Kivpov tavra 
A€yovres GyyeAor. of 5€ Aaxedaupdrior eSocayv tov Av- 
cavdpoy as émoroAéa, vavapxov dé “Apaxov’ ov yap 
vdpos avrots dis Tov avroy vavapyeiy’ Tas perro. vais 


napédocay Avodvipe [érav dn TO TorAdum wévTe Kal | 


elkoot TapeAnrvddrwr |. 


Cyrus, having put Autoboesaces and Mitraeus to death, ts 
summoned before Darius to answer for his conduct. 


Tovrw 5@ ro éviavt@ Kal Kipos améxrewev AvroBot- 
aodkyny xat Murpaior, vieis dvras ris Aaptalov ddeApijs 

n nN me n id 4 S34 , a oe J 
[rijs tod Zépfov rod Aapeiov narpds|, Ste abt@ dmav- 
Tapes ov didwoay ba THs Kdpns Tas xeElpas, 4 ToLodct 


96 HELLENICA IT, ©. x. 


‘oo F Bactret povov' 7 8& Kdépn éorl paxpdrepor 7 xetpls, ep 
ofl ae Xelpa exeov ovdey ay dSdvaito Totnoa. “Tepawéoms 
Sap ovy Kal 7 yurn eAeyov mpods apiatoy decvor etvar ef 
mepiperar thy Alay DBpw rovrov’ 6 8& avroy pera- 
“yh MEUTETAL OS dppwotdy, méupas dyyédous. 


Lysander, on his arrival at Ephesus, collects all the ships 
he can from Chios, Antandros, and elsewhere, gets a fresh 
supply of money from Cyrus, and refits his fleet. The 
Athenians make similar preparations at Samos. 


10 To 8 émdvre eres [emt *Apytra piv éepopevortos, 
405-404 dpxovros 8 év "AOjvais ’AAeElov,] Avcavdpos adixdue- 
BC. vos els "Edecov perenéuaro Eredvixov éx Xlov ovv rats 
vavai, kat tas dAAas mdoas ovvyOpocer, ef mov TLs Fv, 
kal tavtas 7 émeoxevace Kai GdAAas ev Avtdvipw évav- 

ll mnyeiro. @hOay 58 mapa Kipov xpypara fre 68 aire 
elrey Ort TA pev Tapa Bactrdews dvnrAwpéva etn, kat ere 
trElw TOAAG, Setxviwv Goa Exactos TSv vavdpywr Exot, 

12 duws 8 edwxe. AaBaov 5€ 6 Avaavdpos rdapyvpioy, emi 
Tas Tpinpers Tpinpapxovs emwéotyce Kal Tots vavrats Tov 
detrdduevoy picbdv amédwxe. taperxevacovTo d€ xai 
of rév ’AOnvalwy orparnyot mpds TO vavutixoy év TH 
Tap. 


Cyrus, before going up to his father in Media, leaves Lysander 
in charge of all the tribute of his satrapy, and warns ‘him 
against fighting with the Athenians. 


13. Kipos 8 éml rovrois pereméuparo Avoavdpov, éret 
aiT@ mapa Tod matpés fKev dyyedos A€ywv Sti dppwotay 
éxeitvov xadoln, dv év Oapurvnplos tris Mydelas éyyis 

14 Kadovaelwv, éd’ obs eotpdrevocey apeorGras. fxovta be 
Avcavipov ovx ela vavpaxeiy apos 'AOnvatous, gay py 





HELLENICA Il, C1. pf” ~~ 


TOAAG mAelous vais éxn° elvat ae ee TOAAG Kal 405-404 
Baow et xal atro, dore Tours €vexev ToAAGS TAnpodr. ae 
mapederte 8 aire mavras robs ddpovs Tovs éx Tay TéAEw?, 

ot atta Troe Scag, kat Ta TepiTTa xpypara ewxe’ Kal 
dvapvnoas as elye piAlas mpds te THY Tov Aaxedarpovlov 

moh kat mpos Avoavdpoy ldla, dvéBarve mapa Tov 

marépa. 


Lysander takes Cedreiae in Caria by storm, and then sets out 
for Rhodes.- The Athenians sail to Chios and nee 
and choose three additional generals. 


Avcaydpos 8, émet arte Kipos mdvra mapadovs ra 15 
avtod mpds Tov marépa appworodyra petaneunTos avé- 
‘Bawe, prcOdv d:adodvs rH oTpaTiG avyyOn ths Kaplas 
els rov Kepdyecov xdédtov. xal mpooBadroy aédeu 
tov ’AOnvalwy ovppaxy dvoua Kedpelas tH torepala 
mpooBody Kata kparos aipel cat éfnvdpanddicev. foav 
de pigoBdpBapor of évorxobvres. exetOev 8 dmémAcvcev 
els “Pddov. of 8 ’AOnvatot éx rhs Ddyov ire od 16 
tiv BaciWéws Kaxa@s érolovy, kal én ae Xlov xat rhy 
"Edecov émém\cov, kal mapecxevdovro mpds aan. 
Kal oTparnyovs mpos Tots trdpyovot mpocelAovro Meé- 
vavdpov;, Tvdéa, Kngioddorov. 


Lysander sails past Ionia to the Hellespont. The Athenians ° 
put out to sea from Chios. 


Avcavdpos 8 éx rhs “Pddou mapa tiv “lwvlay éxmdet 17 
—apos Tov “EAAnonovroy mpds Te TGV TAOlwy Tov Exmrov 
kat éni ras ageorynxvulas qurGy moAets. yovro d€ kal 
of ’A@nvaios éx ris Xlov anal 7 yap ’Acla moheula 
avrots WV. 


I7S. 


98 HELLENICA II, ©. \. 


408-404 Lysander takes Lampsacus by storm. The Athenians, 180 
B.C. strong, sail in pursutt, first to Elaeus, then to Sestos, 
where they anchor off Aegospotami, opposite Lampsacus, 

and offer battle. 


18 reaktanss aad 8 é€ °ABdvdou maptmhet els Adpspaxov 
ovppaxoy ovoay “ABqvator kai of "ABvdnvol Kai of — 
dAAow tapjoay me(n’ nyetro 5 Odpak Aaxedayudrnos. 

‘19 mpooBaAdcvres d¢ TH WdAEL aipodot KaTa KpaTos, Kal 
dunpracay of otpatiGrat ovcay mAovolay kal olvov kal 
otrov cal Trév GAAwv emrndelwv wAjpy’ Ta 8F €dcdOepa 

20 céuata nmdvta adjxe Avcavdpos. of 8 ’AOnvator xara 
modas mA€ovtes @puloavro tis Xeppovncov év EAaodyte 
vavoly éydojKxovra Kal éxardy. évradOa 8} dpioro- 
movoupevots avtots dyyéAAeras Ta wept Adurpaxor,.xat 

21 evOds dvnyxOnoay els Znordy. éxciPer 8 edOds emioiriod- 
pevot éxAevoap els Alyds morapovs avriov ths Aap axou' 
diéxet 5° 6 “EAAHoTovros Tavrn oradlovs ws mevrecaldexa, 
évradda dé edecmvotro.obyTo. 


For four days they try in vain to draw Lysander out of his 
harbour. Alcibiades points out to them the disadvantages 
of their position, but their generals scorn his advice and 
refuse to move. 


22 <Advoavdpos 8% TH emovton vucrl, éxet spOpos Fv, éo7)- 
Byvev els Tas vais dptoroToincapevous elo Balve, ravTa 
dé mapacKevacduevos as els vavpaxlay kal ra TapaBAn- 
para mapaBarey, mpoeimev ws pydels Kiviooro éx THs 

ag tafews nde avdfouro. of 8% ’AOnvaior dua ra 7Alo 

: dvloxovrt emt Te Amer, taperd£avro évy perdry. os els 
vavaxiay. emel 8% odk dvtarvijyaye Avoavdpos, Kai Tis 

jpepas Gwe jy, anémrevoay mddw els rovs Alyds tora- 

ga pots. Avoavdpos 8 ras taxloras TGy vedy exeAevcer 








HELLENICA I, ©. 1. | 99 


érecOat rots AOnvalots, émedav 5¢ éxBGot, xatiddvras 405-404 
rd a: n aN b a aA A > 
5 tt movodow aromAciv cat air@ efayyetAat. Kat ov 
mpdrepoy e£eBiBacey:- ex rdv vedv. mply avrat ixov. 

a ’ ! ¢ 3 ,oe) a , 
Taira 8’ éoles rérrapas nuépas’ Kat of ’AOnvato. émavy- 
yovro. "AAktBiddys dé xaridav ex Tay TELxGy Tobs pey 25 
’"AOnvatovs év alytaA@ Sppodvras Kal pds ovdemtg mdAEL, 
Ta 8 émirndera €x Synorod peridvras mevrexaldexa ora- 
dlovs amd TOv vedv, Tovs Se worAEulovs év Ayséve Kar 
mpos mode. €xovras wavra, ovK éy Kado &py adrtods 
piety, GAAG peOopploa els Znordv wapijver mpds Te 
Awéva kal mpds méALv* ov dvTes vavpaxyoere, py, Stav 
BotvAnobe. of b& orparnyol, pddwora S& Tvdets Kai 26 
Mévaydpos, amévat atroy éxéAevoay’ avrol yap voy 
oTpatnyety, ouK éxetvov. Kai 6 pév @xero. 


BATTLE OF AEGOSPOTAMI, 

On the fifth day, at a given signal from his scouts, Lysander 
suddenly rows across, the strait with his whole fleet, and 
surprises the Athenians while they are scattered along the 
shore obtaining provisions. He captures without a blow 
the entire Athenian fleet, except Conon's squadron and the 
Paralus, and most of the crews. _& 

Avoavdpos 8’, éret qu quepa méunrn emimdr€over Tots 27 
’AOnvaiots, ele Tots map avtod érropévois, éxnv xatldw- 
ow avrovs éxBeBnxdtas Kal éoxedacuevovs Kata THY 
Xeppdvncov, wep errolovy oA padAoy Kad’ Exdorny 
nuepav, Ta Te oitla méppwOev @vovpevor Kat KxaTadpo- 
voovres 57 Tod Ava-dvipov, Ste obx dvtaviyev, atoTA€ovtas 
TouTaALy tap avroy dpat donlda Kara wécoy Tov TAODD. 
of 8¢ radra émolnoay as exéAevoe. Adcavdpos 3° evbis 28 
éonpnve tiv taxlorny mdreiv' ovpmapye: de Kat Odpag 
td mreCov Exwv. Kove dé lddv rov énlarovy, eonunver 
els Tas vads BonOeiy xara patos. dveoxedacpévwy de 

G2 


100 HELLENICA II, ©. t. 


405-404 Tov avOpéror, al wey Tov vedv dixporor joav, ai s& 
B.C. povdxpotot, at 3& mavTehGs xeval’ 7 8& Kévewvos Kai 
dAXat wept advréy émra mAnpers avnxOnoay aOpda Kat 7 
IIdpados, ras 8° GAAas mdoas Avoavipos édaBe apds TH 
yij- Ttovs b& wrelorous dvdpas ev rH yn ovvédefev" of 

be Kal Epvyor els Ta Tetxvdpua. : 


Conon escapes to Cyprus. The Paralus carries the news to 
Athens. Lysander brings his prisoners to Lampsacus, and 
‘sends Theopompus to Sparta to announce his victory. 


29 Kovwy 82 tais évvéa vavot detywr, ere éyvw Tov 
’"AOnvalwy Ta mpdypata dsepOappeva, karacxav ént thy 
’"ABapvida tiv Aap daxov dxpay édaBev avrddey Ta 
peydAa tév Avodvdpou vedy torla, kal adrds pev dxto 
vavoly dnémvevoe trap Evaydpav els Kimpov, 4 5 
IIdpados els ras ’AOyvas, dmayyeAotoa ta yeyovdra. 

30 Avoavdpos 3% tds Te vads Ka} Tovs alypado@rovs kai TaAAa 
advra els Adpaxev dmrjyayev, aBe 88 Kal rdv orparn- 
yGv &dXovs re kal DiArokAéa cal ’Adelpavrov. 78 NuEpa 
Tatra Kateipydoaro, éreuwe Oednoptop tov MidAjovov 

_Anorny els Aaxedaluova atayyeAodvra Ta yeyovdra, bs 
adixduevos tpitatos amyyyere. “= 


Lysander summons a meeting of his allies at Lampsacus at 
which they make many complaints of Athenian cruelty. 
In revenge he executes all the Athenians among his captives, 
except the general Adimantus. 


31 Mera 8 radra Avcavdpos GOpoloas rots ovppdyous 
éxéXevoe Bovrever Oat wept tGv alyparAdtwrv. évradda 37 
Katnyoplat éylyvovro moAAal tv ’AOnvalwv, & re 7dn 
mapevevounxecay Kat & eyrndicpevor joay rovety, ef 
Kparnceiay Th vavpaxlg, thy Sekiay xetpa aroxdnrew 








' HELLENICA ‘II, CC. 1, 2. 101 


TOV ayaibeen mavtwv, kat Sr. AaBdvres Svo Tpinpets, 405-404 
Kopw6lav xat ’Avdplay, rods avdpas é& atrév advras “ 
kataxpynyviceray’ DPiroxAfs 8 yv orparnyos tv ’AOn- 
valwy, ds rovrous dépOerpev. eA€yero Se kal GAAa TOAAG, 82 

kat éS0fev dmoxreivar tay alxpaddrwv Sco Foay ’AOn- 

vaio. TAnY ’Adeysdvrov, Ste pdvos émeAaBero ev TH ex- 
kAnola rod wept Tis arotouns TOY ye—pOv Wydloparos® 
nriddn perro. dad Twwy mpododvat Tas vats. Avcayvdpos 

32 DiroxrAda mpGrov épwryjcas, ds rots ’Avdpiovs xat 
KopwOtovs xarexpyyvice, rl etn Gros madety dpEduevos 

els "EAAnvas tapavopetv, améopager. 


CHAPTER It. 


Byzantium and Chalcedon submit to Lysander, who sends 
the Athenian garrisons in them and elsewhere back to 
Athens, hoping thereby the sooner to reduce the city to 
starvation. 


"Emel 88 ra év rh Aap dxg xareotqoaro, ender ext 
To Buavriov cal Kadynddva. ot 8 adtrdv tredéxorto, 
rovs trav ’AOnvalwy dpovpors sroondvdous adpévres. of 
¢ mpoddvres “AAKiBiddy 7d BuCdvrioy tore wey epvyor 
els tov IIdvroy, torepov 8’ els "AOnvas cal éyévovto 
’"AOnvaio.. Avaavdpos dé Tovs Te Ppoupovs tov "AOnvalwy 2 


- Kat el rid mov Gddov Tor *APnvaiov, anémeurev els Tas 


’AOrvas, d800s exeioe pdvov TA€ovew aopdActay, dAdAocE 
8° od, eidas Ore Sow dv wAelovs ovdrAAEyGou els 7d dorv 
kat Tov Iletpara, OGrroy rév enirndeiwv evderay EverOat. 
katadimoy 8 Bu(avrlov nat Kadynddvos Zdevédaov 


102 HELLENICA Il, €. 2 


405-404 douooriy Adxwva, ards drotAevoas els Adpwaxoy ras 
(25%) "spats émeoxevacer. 


The Athenians, on hearing of their disaster, reflecting that 
the vengeance they had taken on many subject states was 
about to return upon their own heads, resolve to prepare 
the city for a stege. 


3 ’Ev 8é rats "AOjvats ris TlapdAov adixopérvns vuxros 
éX€yero 7) ovudopd, Kat oluwy? éx rod leipards 81a rv 
paxpa@p TetxGp els Gotu duijev, 6 Erepos ro Erépw Trapay- 
yrov dor exelyns tis vuxrés ovdels exowunOn, od 

‘ pdvov Tovs atoAwAdras tevOodvres, GAAG TOAD paddAov 

' re abrot éavrods, welrecOar voulovres ola erolncav 
MnAlovs te Aaxedayzovlwy drolkovs dvras, Kparioavres 
moAtopkiq, xat “Iortatéas Kat Zxrwvalovs cat Topwvalous 

4 xat Alywnras cat ddXAovs trodAods tév “EAAHvov. TH 
. torepala éxxAnolay énolnoar, év h edo€e rovs Te Atpevas 
dmoxGoat wAny évds xal ra telyn edrpentCev xat 
vdakds édiordvat xal réAAa mdvta ws els ToAtopklay 
mapackevdcew thy modu. Kal otro. pev tept Tadra 

yoav. 


Lysander sails to Lesbos, where he reorganizes the govern- . 
ments of the several states, and despatches Eteonicus to do 
the same in Thrace. All the Athenian allies revolt, except 
the Samtians. 


& <Avoavdpos 8 éx tod “EAAnondvrov vavot d:axoclats 
ddixdpevos eis AéoBov xarecxevdoato tds te &AAas 
moves ev airy cat Muridnuny els 8% ra emt Opans 
xwpia émeue Séxa tpinpers Exovra ’Eredvixoy, ds Ta 

6 éxet mdvta mpods Aaxedaiovlovs peréotnoer. ebOds be 
Kat 4 GAAn ‘EAAds adecorjxes AOnvaiwy pera ri vav- 





HELLENICA JI, C. 3. 103 
- if t 
pax tap TAH Taylor otro. 8¢ cpayds Tov ‘yroplyey ¢ 405-404 
B.C. 


TOWNTAVTES KATELXOY THY TOALD. | 


Stmultaneously the Spartans and their allies under king 
Pausanias invade Attica and encamp in the Academy, 
and Lysander, having restored Aegina and Melos to ther | 
exiled citizens, blockades Piraeus. 

Avoavdpos 8 pera taira émeuwe mpds “Aylv re els 7 
AexéAetav. xal els Aaxedaluova brit mpoonAdt obv d:aKo- 
giats vavol. Aaxedaydrio. 8 eEjoav travdnpet nad ol 
GAAot [leAotovynotot wAnv ’Apyelwv, wapayyeiAavros 
tod érépov Aaxedatpovlwy Bactréws Ilavoavlov. eet 8 
8 dravres nOpolcOncav, dvadaBov atrovs mpds Thy 
add eorparonédevoen ev tH Axadquela [To Kadovpérp 
yupvacly]. Avoavdpos 8% adixdpuevos els Alywap dré- 9 
dwxe THY wédAw Alywhras, Srovs eddvaro wAEloTous 
aitéy aOpoloas, os 8 atrws cal MnAlots cal rots &AAows 
Scot Tis attav éorépovro. peta bt TodTo Sydcas Dada- 
piva wpploaro mpds Tov Tletpara vavol wevriKxovra Kai 
éxardy, kal Ta tAota elpye Tod eloTrdov. 


The Athenians maintain an obstinate resistance till all their 
corn fails; then they send envoys to Agis with offers of an 
alliance, but he refers them to the Ephors at Sparta, by 
whom, however, they are refused permission to enter the 
country. 

Oi 8 *A@nvaio moh opkovpevot Kata yijy Kat xara 10 
OdAarray Ardépovy tl xp movety, ore vEedv ovTE oUp- 
paxwy avtois dvtwy otre alrov' évdui(oy dé ovdepiay 
etvat cwrnplay ph tadeivy & od TYyswpovpevor errolnoay 
GAAA ca THv BBpw ydlkovy dvOpemovs puxpotroAlras 
ovd’ ént meg altla érépa 7) Gre exelvors ovveudxovy. 3a 11 
Tatra Tous ar ttous émirfpous Touoavres éxaprépouv, Kat 


=e —— = . 


104 HELLENICA Il, C. 2. 


405-404 drobynoxdvtwy év TH WéAEL AtL@ TOAAGY ov BreA€yovTo 
or mept diadAayns. émel 5¢ wavTeAGs 73n 6 otros émede- 
dolret, reupay mpéoBes map’ *Ayw, Bovdduevor odbp- 
paxor.elvat Aaxedaipovlois éxovres ra relyn Kad Tov 
12 Tletpara, wal éat rovros ovvOjxas moreicOar. 6 de 
atrovs els Aaxedaluova éxédevey lévar’ ob ydp .etvat 
KUptos avrds. émel 8 annyyetAay of mpécBets radra 
13 Tots ’AOnvalois, érepypay abrovs cis Aaxedatuova. of 8 
éxel joav évy SedAaclg [wAnolov] rijs Aaxwvixis Kal 
éxvdovto of Epopo. aitav & édeyor, dvra ofdzep cat mpos 
*Ayw, adrdbey avrovs éxéAevov ameévat, cat ef Tu S€ovTat 

14 elpjuns, KdAALoy FKew ‘BovArevoapevous. of 38 mpéaBets 
ézet tjxov olxade cal dmpyyeiAay taira els tiv mdr, 
dbupia évérere Tacw' orto yap dvdpaTodicOjoecOat, 
kal ws dv méumwow érépovs mpecBets, moAAovs TO 
Ame amorciocbat. . 


«SUM they will not hear of demolishing their Long Walls, and 
even arrest Archestratus for making such a proposal. 

16 Ilept 38 ray rexGv ris xabaipérews oddels eBovAero 
aupBovrevew’ *Apxéotpatos yap elmav év rH Bovdt 
Aaxedaipovlos xpdtiorov eciva ep’ ols mpovxadodyro 
elonunv troretcOa, @€0n° mpovxadcdrro dé Tv paxp&v 
reixav ént déxa cradlous Kabedciv éxarépov' éyévero dé 
Ynoiopa pr eFeivar wept rovTwy cvpBovdrdedvew. 
Theramenes procures his own despatch to negotiate with 

Lysander, but after waiting more than three months returns 
with the information, that the Ephors alone had power to 
make peace. However he and nine others ave chosen as 
plenipotentiaries and sent to Sparta. 

16 Tovovtwy 3 dvtwayv Onpapévns elev ev exxAnola sre 
el BovAovras adroy Twéuyrat mapa Avoavipop, eldas Fee 





HELLENICA I, C. 2. : 105 


Aaxedaipovlovs mérepov eavdpanodicacba rv méAw 405-404 
BovAdpevor dvtéxovet wept ray Tey 7 mloTews Evexa. ae 
meupbets 8% duerpiBe mapa Avodvip» tpets pivas Kal 
mA€ov, éemitnpGyv smote AOnvaior EuedAov 31a TO emtAE- | 
Aourévat roy ctrovy Gmavra 6,Tt Tis A€you duodoyncer. 

nel 88 Fe Terdprm pnvl, amjyyedev év exxAnola Sr 17 
airéy Avcavdpos réws pev xaréxot, ‘elra KeAevor els 
Aaxedatyova lévar’ ov ydp elvat Kiptos Ov épwr@ro tn 

atrod, dAAd rots épdpous. pera Tatra npéOn mpecBev- 

THs els Aaxedalpova avroxpdrwp déxatos autdés. Avcav- 18 
dpos Se Tots epdpos Cremer dyyeAodvtTa per GAdwr 
Aaxedatpoviwy ’AptotoréAn, puydda ’A@nvaioy dvra, Sri 
dmoxplvatro @npapéver éxelvous xuplovs etvar elpyvns 

Kal moA€pov. 


An audience is given to them at Sparta, where many accusa- 
tions are brought against the Athenians, especially by the 
Corinthians and Thebans; but the Spartans refuse to 
destroy Athens utterly, and offer terms of peace. 


Onpapyévns de nat of GAAow mpécBets evel Foav éy 19 
TedrAacla, épwrapevor 5¢ emt trlye Adyw ieovev elroy Gre. 
abtoxparopes trept elpnyns, pera Tadra of Epopor Kadeiv 
éxéAevoy avrovs. énet 8 HKov, éxxAnolay érolnoay, év 
4 dvréreyov KoplyOio. xat @nBator pddrjora, roAAot Be 

~ kal GdAoe tov “EAAnveov, ph orévderOar ’AOnvators, 
' ANN ebatpety. Aaxedaymdrioe 3@ ovx Ehacay addy 20 
“EAAnvida dvipatodiety péya dyabdr elpyacpéevny ev 
tots peylorous xivddvots yevouévors tH “EAAGS:, GAN’ 
éxovodvro elpyyny ef 6 Td Te paxpa Telxy Kai Tov Te- 
para xadeddvras Kal tas vais tAny Sddexa wapaddyras 
kal Tovs g@uyddas xadévras tov adrov éxOpdv kcal plrov 


106 HELLENICA IT, Cc. 2, 


405-404 voul(ovras Aaxedaiovlots ExecOat Kat xara yhv Kat 
B.C. a 
©. xara Oddarray Stot dv HyGvrat. 


The Athenians, notwithstanding the remonstrances of a few, 
readily accept the terms offered. 


21 Onpapeévns 82 cal of civ aire mpécBes eravédepov 
tatra els tas AOnvas. eloidvras 8 abrovs dyAos Tepte- 
X€iTo TOAVs, PoBovpevor py Ampaxrot Fotev* ov yap ért 
évexdper pédAAdew 81a Td TAOS TGv aToAAUpPEVwY TE 

22 Amo. tH de torepala amjyyedAov of mpécBes ep’ ols 
of Aaxedaydvio. tmovotvro tiv elpyynv’ mponydper de 
aitGv Onpapévns, A€yov os xph TelOecOar Aaxedat- 
povlots Kal ra telyn mepiatpety. dvtecmdvtwy 8€ Twer 
avT@, TOAD SF TAEWYWY ovvVeTnaweodvTwr, oke d€exeE- 
aba thy elpnunv. 


Lysander and the exiles enter Piraeus and begin the. destruc- 
tion of the Long Mares celebrating the first day of Greek 
Freedom. 


a3. «ss Mera 8 ratra Avcavipds re lara els rov Tletpara 
kat of guyddes xarjoay Kal ta telyn KatéoxanToy ba" 
atAntpliwy ToAAn mpoOvula, voulCovres exelyny ri 
epav TH ‘EAAAS: apxeww Tis édevdeplas. 


Contemporary events in Sicily. 


24 Kal 6 émavrds enyer, €v @ pecodvre Atoviowos 6 
“Eppoxpdrovs Xvpaxdotos érupavynce, paxn pev mpore- 
pov ATTnOévrwv trd Tvpaxociwy Kapyxndoviwy, ondver 
82 olrov éAdvTwy ’ Axpdyarra, umennee Tv DiKeAw- 
TOV Thy WOALW. 


'HELLENICA II, ©. 3s 1097 


CHAPTER IIL. sini 


The Athenians appoint Thirty men to draw up anew constitu- 
tion, whereupon Lysander satls to Samos, and Agis with- 
araws from Decelea. 


Te & emdvre eres [S Fw "Odvumds, 1d ordd.oy 
évixa Kpoxtvas @erradds, Evdlxov év Sadprn epoped- 
ovtos, [Iv8odépou 3 év ’A@jvats dpxovtos, dy ’A@nvaior, 
Ort év ddryapxla npeOn, ob svopd ovary, ddd’ dvapy lav 
rov éviavrdy Kadodow. éyévero 8% abrn h dAtyapxia 
@be.| oe ro djpwo rpidxovta dvdpas édA€oGat, ot Tovs 2 
matplovs vdépous ovyypdypouc., cab’ obs moAtrevoover. 
kat npeOnoav olde, TloAvydpns, Kpirias, MnAdBuos, “In- 
moNoxXos, EvxAcldns, ‘lépwy, Mynolroxos, Xpépzwv, Onpa- 
pevns, Apeatas, Acoxdjjs, Patdplas, Xaipérews, Avalrios, 
Heicwy, SopoxaAgs, Epatroadévns, XapixAfjs, Ovopaxajs, 
Odoyvis, Alcxlyns, Qeoyévns, KAeoundns, Epactorparos, 
PelSwv, Apaxovrldns, EipdOns, "ApiotoréAns, “Iamdpa- 
xos, Mynorbeldns. rovtwy 88 mpaxOévtwy dmémrAer Av- 8 
gavdpos mpds Ddyov, "Ayts & ex ris Aexedclas ataya- 
you To we(dy otTparevpa di€Avoe Kara méAets Exdotous. 


Contemporary events in Thessaly and Sicily, 


Kara 88 rodrov rév xatpov mept HAlov exrenew Avkd- 4 | 
dpwv 6 Pepaios, Bovrcuevos UpEat SAns ris Oerradtas, Septem- 
rovs évavriovpévous airg tév @erraday, Aapiratous re °° *°*- 
kat GAdous, paxn évlxnoe Kat ToAAOvs améxTewwen, 

"Ev 8¢ To abra xpdv@ cat Atoviotos 6 Supaxdotos 5 
TUpavvos paxn 7TTnOEels b7d Kapyndoviwy Tédav xat 
_ Kapdpwav anddece. per ddAlyov 8& Kat Acovrivor 
Lupaxoolots cvvotxodvres améotnoay els thy atrav 


108 HELLENICA II, c. 3 


404-408 adédw ad Atovuctov cat Svpaxoclwy. mapaxpipa de 
kal of Svpaxdovo inmets ind Arovyalov els Katavnv 
dmeordAnocay. | 


Samos surrenders at discretion. Lysander, after reorganizing 
the government, dismisses the allied fleet, and at the head ~ 
of the Lacedaemonian ships returns to Sparta in triumph 
with all the spoils of war. 


6 Of 5& Daptoe wodropxovpevor b1d Avodvipov wavtn, 
éret ov Bovdopévwy aitGy Td mpGrov dpodocyety mpoo- 
BddAdew 75n EveddrAev 6 Avcavipos, Guorddynoap ev tpd- . 
Tov éxwv Exactos amévat taév érevOépwv, ra 8 GAda 

7 mapadodva’ Kai obrws ef7rAOov. Avaavdpos 8% Tots 
apxalots woAlrats mapadots rhv méAw Kal Ta évdvra 

(t%4)  adyra kat déka dpyovras xatacrioas dpoupety adjxe rd 

8 TOV CUpUaxwr vauTiKov Kata méAELS, Tats 8¢ Aaxwrixats 

vavoly amémAevcev els Aaxedaipova, dndywv Ta Te TOY 

“ aixpahdrwy vedy axpwripia cai ras éx TeipaiGs tpt 
pets TARY bwdexa Kal oredavovrs, ods Tapa TGV TéAcCwY 
éAduBave dGpa ldlq, ai. dpyvplov rerpaxdova Kat éBdo- 
pnkovta radavra, & mepteyévovto Tov dpwr, ods atr@ 
Kipos mapederkev els tov wéAcuov, kat ef te GAA ext7- 
gato éy TO TOE. 


A list of the Ephors to show the duration of the war. 


9 Taira 8 rdvra Aaxedamovlots amédwxe TedevtGrTos 
Septem- rod Oépovs [els 5 E€dunvos Kal dxt® Kat elxoow ern 
eek ors T@ TOAEUD éredevTa, Ev ols Epopor of dprOuodpevor olde 

éyévovto, Alvnolas mp&ros, ed’ ot hpgato 6 moAepos, 
méunt@ Kat dexdtw ere, TOD per’ EvBolas dAwow tpra- 

10 xovraet(dwy onovdav, werd d& Todroy olde, Bpacldas, 


"Iodvap, Swotparlbas, "E€apxos, ’Aynoiorparos, "Ayye- 





HELLENICA TIT, ©. 3. - 10g 


visas, "Ovopaxdrns, Zevéimmos, Uirdas, WAeorddas, 404-403 
Kxewspaxos, “IAapxos, Aéwy, Xaiplras, Tarnoiddas, 
KAeoobévns, Avxdptos, "Emjparos, "Ovoudytios, Are EuTr- 

aldas, MuoyoAatdas, "Iolas, “Apaxos, Evdpxemmos, Tav- 

raxAjs, [lirvas, "Apxvras, Evdixos, ed’ ob Avoavdpos 

mpagas Ta elpnuéva otxade xarémAevcev. |. 


The Thirty delay to publish the new constitution, and put 
thetr own creatures into the senate and other offices. They 
proceed to purge the city of all extreme democrats, and to 
support their violent measures they procure from Lysander 
a Spartan garrison with Callibius as harmost. 


Ot 8% rpidxovra 7péOnoay pev émel TdxLoTa TA paKpa 11 
telxn wal Ta trept rov [letpaca xabnpeOn’ aipebévres dt 
ép Gre ovyypdyyat vdpovs, kad” oboTivas toAtrevoouwTo, 
rovrous pevy det Zueddov ovyypadety re xal droderxvivat, 
BovAny be kal ras dAAas dpyas xaréotnoay as eddxet 
avrois, éneira mpGtov piv obs mavtes decay ev TH 12 
Snpoxparla dd ovkopavtlas (Gvtas Kat tots Kadots 
kayaOois Bapeis dvras, ovAAapBdvorres trijyov Oava- 
‘tov’ kat % Te Bovdn ndéws at’Tav Kareyndlcero of re 
ddA. Soot cuvpderay éavtots py svres tovodror ovdéey 
WX9ovro. emet 8¢ Hp£avto BovdreverOar Stws ay e£eln 18 
avrois tT mode xpjodar Stws Bovdrowro, éx rovrov 
mparov pev méuyavres els Aaxedalyova Aloxlyny te xai 
’AptororéAny érecav Avoavdpoyv ppovpodts oplor ovpmpa- 
fat édrdeiv, Ews 5% Tobs tovnpovs éxrodov Toinodpevor 
KaraoTioawto Thy woAiTelay’ Opépew d& avrot bmeo- 
xvoovro, 6 de meccGels rovs Te Gpovpots cat KadAlBroy 14 
dppoorhy ovvénpagey avtois meupOjvar. of 8 énet rHv 
gpovpay édaBor, tov pev KaddlBiov eOeparevoy mdon 
Oeparelg, os mavta eérawvoln & apdtroter, Tay dé ppov- 


110 HELLENICA II, ¢. 3. 


404-408 p@y TovTov ovuméutovTos avTois obs eéBovAovTo cuve- 
B.C. AduBavov odxért Tods Tovnpods Te kat dAlyov afiovs, 
GAN 75n obs evdpicov Fxiora pev tapwOovpévous avexe- 
aOa, dvrinpdrrew 8€ re emyeipodyras aAelorous dv 
Baa as t 
Tous avvebédovras Aap Pdvew. 


_ A disagreement arises between Critias and T; heramenes, the 
Jormer urging a policy of indiscriminate bloodshed. 


15 T@ pev otv apadtw xpdve 6 Kpirlas ro Onpapever 
dpoyvepwv te Kai plros qv" émet 5& adrds ev Tpomerhs 
qv ent td toAAOvs amoxrelvew, dre kal puyoy td Tod 
dnov, 6 3 Onpapyévyns avréxonre, A€ywv Sr odK elds 
ein Oavarody, ef tis éTypato rd Tov Sypov, Tovs dé 
Kadovs kayabovs pndty xaxdv elpydcero, émel cal eyo, 
én, Kat ov ToAAG 87) TOD dpéoxewy Evexa TH wéAEL Kar 

16 elmopev Kai émpdgaper’ 6 €, ert yap olkelws expito Te 
Onpapéver, avrédeyev Ste odx eyxwpoln trois tAEovenTeEty 
BovAopévots ph ovK extrodav Toretc Oat Tovs ixaywrdrous 
Staxwrverv® el 3€¢, Ste Tpidxovrd eopev Kal ovy els, ArTdv 
Tt ole, Gomep Tupavvldos ravrns THs apxjs xphvat ém- 

17 pedcioOar, ednOns ef. eet dé, AtoOvnoKdvTwy TOAAGY 
kal Gdlkws, moAAol S7A0L Foav ovrotdpevol re Kat 
Oavpdcovres ti exotro } moAtTela, wdAw édeyev 6 Onpa- 
pévns Sri el pj Tes Kowwwvors ixavods AnWoro TOY Tpay- 

. parwv, Gdvvaroy Evotro THY éAtyapylay Srapéverv. 


To satisfy Theramenes the Thirty nominate three thousand 
to participate in the government, a measure whith Thera- 
menes criticizes as at once dangerous and absurd. 

18 °Ek rovrov pévtoe Kpirias xat of GAAot rpidKovra, 70 
poBotpevor kai ovx Hxiora Tov Onpapévn, ph ovppvely- 
gay mpos avroy of moAtrat, Katadéyovet TpLoxtAlous Tos 


HELLENICA II, C. 3. . 111 


pebéfovras 8% Trav Tpaypdrwv. 6 8 at Onpapevns cal 404-403 
mpos Tatra édeyev ott dromoy doxoin éavTd ye elvat 7d io 
mp@toy pev BovAopévous rovs BeAtlarovs raév ToAtTGy 
Kotvwvovs Toncacbat TpioxtAiovs, WaTEp Tov aptOpdy 

Todroy éxovTa twa dvdyxynv Kadovs kayabods elvat, kal 

‘‘otr é£w ro’rwy aonovdalovs otr évtos rovTwy Tovnpovs 

oldy re eln yevéoOa’ exertra 8, py, 6pG Eywye S00 Tuas 

Ta évaytidtata mpdatrovras, Biaiay re Thy apxnv Kat 

fiTTova TOY apxoevwy KaTacKkevaCowevous. 


By a stratagem the Thirty strip all the Athenians, except 
the Three Thousand, of their arms; they now begin a reign 
of terror, putting to death their own personal enemies and 

. rich citizens for the sake of their money. 

‘O peév tatr’ édeyer. of 3 eféracw romoavtes Tay 20 
pry tpioxiAley ev tH dyopa, Tay 8 éfw rod Karaddyou 
GAAwpy GAAaxod, éreta KeAcvoavres emt Ta SrrAa, ev d 
éxetvor dmeAnAVOecay Tépipavtes Tovs ppovpods Kal Tv 
ToAtTGy Tovs dpoyvepovas avrots Ta StAa wdvTwv TAHV 
TOV TptoxtAiwy tapelAovTo, Kai dvaxouloavtes Taira eis 
THY axpdéTokw ovveOnkay év TO va@. TovTwy be yevo- 21 
péver, ws @€dv 75n tovety adrois 5,rt BovAowrTo, ToAAOVS 
pey €xOpas Evexa améxrewov, tohAovs 8& xpynpuarav. 2 (3\ 
Zofe 8° adrots, Smws Exovey rots gpovpois xpyyara 
diddvat, kal tGv petolkwv Eva Exactoy AaPeiv, cal av | 
Tovs pev droxreival, Ta Se xpnuata avTGy anoonpnvac Gai. | 


When Theramenes opposes these measures, the rest of the 
Thirty conspire against him, and Critias openly accuses 
him before the Senate. 

"ExéAevoy 5% xal tov Onpapévyn AaBetv Svtiwa Bov- 22 

Aoro, 6 & daexplvaro, AAN’ od doxet por, Epn, Kadov 

eivat ddoKovtas BeAtlorous elvat GdiuK@TEpa TOV TVKO- 


112 HELLENICA HU, €. 3- 


array Totreis. dxcivon piv yap zap ov xpmpara Aap- 

B.C. Bavorer Civ elwr, Hues 33 aroxrevouper pndev GduxovurTas, 

23 Iva ypiparadrapBdreper; Tes ov rasTa Te TayTt éxeivwy 

abicérepa; of 3 éuxoter popiCovres auTOv ewar T} 

gop 6,11 BotAowro, éxtBovdevovew airs, «at idle 

mpos Tous BovAeuvTas BAdos wpos GAAov 3éBadAov @s 

Avpawdperoy THY Toditeiar. xai wapayyeiAarTes yeavl- 

oxots ot eddxoup abrois Opactrarot dyar fipidia two 

pddns €xovras wapayeverOat, curévctay Thy Bovdny- 

ee Encl d€ 6 Onpapérns sapny, dvaoras 6 Kptrias refer 
ade. 


SPEECH OF CRITIAS. 


« Thenumerous executions were necessitated by the long dura- 
tion of democracy at Athens, and had the full approval of 
the Lacedaemonians. ~ 
"CO, dvdpes Bovdevral, el pév Tis thar popicer wrelo- 

gras Tod Katpot arobvnoKe, évvonaadtw Srt Gwov Two- 
e7eta peOloravra: mavraxod ratra yiyverav athel- 
ovs 8% dvdyxn evOdde wodepious etvat rots els GAt- 
a2 pxia pefroraot bid Te To woAvaVOpweroTamY TOV 
2 gE RAANvibor Thy wd evar kat 3a Td wAEioTOP XpoOvoy 
ZArcvdepig nae, dijpov reOpdpOa. pets SF yvovTes 
a yois olots fpiv re cat tpiv xadem}v wortrelay elvat 
ce pe POP TTD yvovtes 3 Ste Aaxedatporiots Tots TEpt- 
577 aow mas 6 py 37 Snror 4 
ZT , Duty Oipos ofnor dy pidos yévotro, 
ye feToTOL del dy motot dscareAoiev, 31a Tadra ovv 
Zz pi vii yoann tTHvde Thy TwoAtrelay KadioTta- 


4 gal édp twa alcOavdpeba évavrlov TH dAcyapxla 
= | a Buranda é€xtrod@v totovpeOa> r0OAD "Be aera 
—— S o ty Sixatoy eva, ef tis YuGy aitGv Avpatverat 
nace arn KaTaordcel, dixyny airoy dddvac. — 


OF ad 


ee Se 








HELLENICA, Il, G3 - 113 


‘Theramenes had shown himself not an enemy only, but a 404-403 
trattor ; though he had been foremost in making peacewitth .B.C. 
Sparta and in putting down the democracy, he now wished 
to make his peace with the people and so secure a safe 
retreat. 

Nov ody alc@avdpeba Onpapevyn tovrovi ofs Svvarat 27 
dmoAAvvta nas: Te kal tas. @s 6 tadra ddnn, 

“A Lol e / pA 4 Oo / an a) 

nv KaTavonte, evpnoete ovTE WeyovTa ovdeva paddrov 

Onpapévovs Tovrovi ta mwapdvta ovre évavTiovpevor, 

éray tia exroday Bovdducba toinoacbar tev dynpa- 

yoyaov. el pev tolvey e& dpyns tatra éylyvwoxe, To- 

A€utos prev Fv, ov pevTor Tovnpds y av duxalws évoytCeros 

viv d¢ atros pty dp£as ris mpds Aaxedaiovlous tricrews 28 

kal gidias, avrds 5& Ths Tod Sypou KaTadvcews, pd- 

Avora 5& eLopunoas tpas trols mpwrois brayopuevors els 

bpas Slknv emiriOévar, viv émel cal tyels Kat Tets 

“ 3 N oa , / > 3 3 AN 

‘pavepOs exOpol to Syuw yeyevneda, odkér atte Ta 

ytyvopeva apéoket, Srws adtos pev ad dv to dopadre 

Kataoti, juets Se Slkny dGyev Tay TeTpaypevov. BOTE 29 

ob pdvov os exOpG atte mpoojnKer GAAA Kal as Tpoddrn 

tuav te Kat judy dddvat thy dixynv. Kalro. tocovT@ 
XN , , , 4 , 

. péey Sewdtepoy mpodocla woAepov, bow xadrEeTwTEpoV 

grrdgacbar 7d &pavés rod dhavepod, rocovrw 8 éy Aor, 

do Todenlors pev GvOpwro. cal omevdovrar kal avOis 
motol ylyvovrat, dy 8 dv mpodiddvta Aap Bdvwct, TovT 
ovre €onelcaro ma@moTE ovdels OUT éxloTevceE TOD ALTON. 


‘In. the past he had been highly honoured by the people; 
then he had been foremost in promoting the revolution of 
the Four Hundred, and foremost again in bringing about 
their fall. Well therefore had he deserved the nickname of 
Buskin. 


“Iva 8¢ evdire Stet ov Katvd tadta otros motel, dAAG 80 
H 


114 | HELLENICA, II. C. 3 


404-408 gtce: mpoddrys éotiv, dvapvicw tyas Ta TOUT .TeE- 


_ 


e 81 Acirau* [Kal yap 6 


mpaypeva. ovTos yap @& dpy7s pey Tiu@pevos bro Tob 
djpou kara tov warépa “Ayvwva, mpotetéotaros éyévero 
THY Snpoxpatlay petactioa els Tovs retpaxoalovs, Kat 
enparevey ev éxelvors. emel 8 Godero dvtlraddv tT TH 
ddtyapxlg ovvorduevoy, mpGtos ad jyepav TO dyyo 
ér éxelvous éyéevero’ 80ev Symov Kat xdOopvos émxa- 
5 x0dopvos dppdrrew Bey tots tooty 
ducporépots doxel, amroBA€rret be aw duporépav.| det 
5€, @ Onpdpueves, dvdpa ri TOV dftov Cv ov mpadye pev 
decvov elvar els mpdypara Tous ovydvras, Hv 8é TL avTi- 
KdOmTN, EvOvs HetasaiXeodat, GAN’ dotep év vm dua- 
movetaOat, Ews dv els odpov xataordow" el 8% py, TOs 
dy ddlkowwrd more évOa det, ef reddy re dvtixdwn, 
evdus els ravavtla TAEOLED 5 


‘By such shifis he had caused the death of many; he had 
procured the condemnation of the generals i Arginusae 
to save his own life. 

Kat «lot pev dymov macat peraBodal ToAtrerOv 
Oavarnddpat, ov S5é da TO edperdSoros elvat melorous 
pev peralrios ef é£ ddtyapylas bind Tod Sypov amodw- 
Aévat, wrAeloTors 8 ex Snuoxparlas ind TGy Bedtidvwr. 
otros 5€ rol éorw ds taxels dvehéoOat bmd Tay oTpa- 
™myGv Tovs Katadivtas ’AOnvalwv év tH wept AéoBov 
vavpaxla avros otk dveddpevos Suws tay orparnyav 
KaTnyopGy améxtewev avtovs, tva avros TeptowOeln. 


'* Death was the only punishment meet for sucha man. If 


they should condemn him they would. but follow the 
example of Sparta; while tf they acquitted him, he was 
sure to prove the rutn of them all. 


“Ooris ye pi avepds éore tod pev mAeovexreiv det 





HELLENICA, II, ©. 3. 115 


€mepeAOpEvos, TOU 5€ KaAov Kal TGv dlrwy pndev Evtpe- 404-408 

, ' n , , , a ’ B.C. 
TOMEvOS, MHS TOVTOV xpyn ToTE delcacbar; mas 5é Ov 
gvrAdgacba, elddras avrod Tas petaBoAds, as py Kal 
npas Tavrd SvvacO7 rovfoa; Hueis obv TovTOY Umdyopev 

N e , , e 4 ec a y \ 
Kat @s émPBovdevovta Kal ws mpodiddvTa nas Te Kat. 
Ca! e ) ’ a ‘ ’ , : 
vuas. @s 8 elkdra mototpev, cat 1ad’ évvoncare. 
KaAAlory pev yap dymov doxet moArtela etvat 77 Aaxe- 34 
Sarpovlwy’ ef 3 exet emixerpnoesé tis TGY edpwr dyvTi 
tod rots mAeloo. melOecOar Weyew te THY dpynv Kal 
évaytiodabat rots mpartrouevois, ovx dv olecbe airoy 
kal tm attayv Tov éddpwv xat bro Tis GAAns ardons 
moAews THS peylotns Tipwplas afwOjvar; kal dpeis 
ovy, av cwpovyre, ov TovTOU GAN’ tydv atrav deloeabe, 
@s ottos cwlets wey modAots av péya dpoveiy Troinoece 

n , en 
Tév évavrla ytyywrtKdvtwy tpiv, aroAdpevos 5¢ TavTwv 
kal Tov évy tH méAG Kal Tov ew troréuor av Tas 
éAmildas. 


. THERAMENES SPEAKS IN HIS OWN DEFENCE, 


‘Really the generals at Arginusae had been the first to accuse 
him. In alleging the violence of the storm he had offered 
a reasonable defence, so that in accusing him they had pro- 
nounced their own condemnation. Critias knew nothing 
of the matter, being at that time in Thessaly. 


_ “O'pev tadr’ elnav exabeCero* Onpapyévns B& dvacras 35 

Zhefev, “AAAA mpGrov pey pvnoOjcoua, & avdpes, 6 
TeXeuTatoy Kar éuod eime. nol ydp pe Tovs oTpatn- 
yous dmoxteivat KaTnyopotvra. éyd 8% ovK Apxov dymov 
kar’ éxelvwy Adyov, GAN exeivor Epacay mpoctayxOey . 
por vp éavrav ovx dvedéoOat tors bvoTvxodvtTas ev TH 
mept AéoBov vavpaxlg. eye 5¢ dmrodoyotpevos ws bia 
Tov XEtGva ovde TAEty, i) Sre dvatpetaOat Tos avdpas 

H 2 


116 HELLENICA, II, C. 3 


404-403 duvarov iv, ebofa tH moder elxdra AEyerv, exeivor 3 
.C. a 
7 éavrav xatnyopety édaivovro. ddacKovres yap oldy te 
= n AY ; , 3 / : 9 \ 
elvat oGoat Tovs dvdpas, mpoewevor amroAéobat avrovs 
36 dmomA€ovtes @xXovTO. ov péevTot Oavuacw ye rd Kpirlay 
PS 4 e & x A b) \ > 4 7 
mapayezopinKevat Bre yap iene WY, ist a at 
xavev, GAN’ év Oerradria peta Tpoundews dnpoxpartav 
kateoxevace kat Tovs mevéotas wmAtCey emt rovs de- 
omortas. 


‘But it was not men like himself who endangered the exist- 
ence of the Government, but those who had wished to put 
to death the foremost men in the state. 

87 *Qy pev odv obros éxel Eparre pnddy evOdde yévotro’ 
TadE ye MEVTOL GpordoyG eye Torre, el Tis tas pev Tis 
apxfis Bovrerat tadoa, robs 8° émBovdcvovras syiv 
loxupovs mrovet, Sfxasov etvyar ths peylotns abrév Tyswpias 
tuyxarew® Sotis pévto. 6 tadra.mpatrwy éoriy otpat 
dy tuas Kdddtota xpivew, Ta TE wTempaypéva Kat & viv 

88 TpaTret ExaoTos Huav el KaTavonoere. ovKOdY MéxpL MEV 
Tov tpas te KataoThvat els thy Bovdclay Kat apxas 
dmodetxOnvat Kal Tovs 6uordoyoupevws ovKodavras trd- 

 -yecOar mavres tadta eytyvdcxoper' eel 5é ye odror 
np€avto Gvdpas Kadovs Te xdyabovs ovAAapBavey, éx 
roUTov Kayo npédunv rdvavria: tovTos ytyvéoketv. 

39 joe yap 8re droOvncKovros pev Aé€ovtos tod Sada- 
pivlov, avdpos Kat ovros Kat doxodvros ixavod eivat, 
ddikodvros 8 ovde Ev, of Sport rovTw- poBhoowro,. 
goBovpevor de évavtion ride tH TodArTela EcowrTo 
éylyywoxoy 8 bre ovAdAapSavopévov Nixnpdrov rod 
Nixiov, xat aAovaolov Kat ovdty moétore Synporixdy ovTE 
airod otre rod marpds mpdkavros, of rovT@ Spoor dve- 

40 peveis tty yevnoowro: "AAAG piv xa AvtidGvros 





HELLENICA II, ©. 3. 117 


td hudv dmroddAvpévov, bs év TE TorAepw Svo0 rpinpers 404-403 
2 , ’ t C7 \ oe t B.C. 
eV mAcovoas Tapelxeto, AmoTdyny Ste Kal of mpdOvpot 


“a / e a et a d 
™ moder yeyevnpevor Tavtes UTOTTWS Huty Efouev. 


‘He had consistently resisted such measures as the arrest of — 
the metacct, the seizure of arms, the hiring of the Spartan 
garrison, the banishment of leading citizens. 


*Avretmov dé kal Gre Tov petolkwv Eva Exacdroy AaBeEiv 
épacay xpivar’ evdnAov yap Hv Sti rovTwy amoAopeveov 
Kai ob pérouxor G&mravtes moA€uton TH ToAcTE’a oowvTo, 
dvretmov dé xai Ste Ta STAG TOD TANPovs wapnpodyTo, ov 41 

: a b) a“ \ , ; nm. ION \ \ 
voullwy xpnvar acdevn tTHv moAuy Tovey’ ovdé yap Tovs 
Aaxedaipovlovs Edpwv Tovrov Evexa BovAopevous TEptTG- 

€ a tig 2\ 7 ld 9 3 A 
car nas, Smws drAiyou yevouevor pndev dvvalueO” avrovs 
adedciv’ eéqv yap avrois, el tovrov ye déowTo, Kal pndeva 
Aumety ddiyov ert xpovoy TO Aw@ TMETavTas, oddE ye TO 42 
poupovs picbodcbat ovynpecké por, €€ov aitay Tv To- 

a“ /, Fe. € gs 2 
AiTGv TocovTovs mpocrapBavey, Ews padiws éuéArAoMEY 
of dpyovtes TGv apxopevwy Kpatnocew. emel ye pry 
TOAAOUS EWpwY ev TH TWOAEL TH Gpxn THdE Sdvopmevets 
p f fh Opxhi th pevels, 
Toddots 5& guyddas yryvopevovs, ovK ad eddKer por 
otre OpacvBovrov otre “Avutoy otre *AAKLBiddyv 
Pate: 2 ef 2 > \ 
guyadevew® noe yap dre odrw ye TO dvtlradov loyupdv 
€ooiro, el TH wey TAHOE. Tyeudves txavol mpooyern- 
cowro, tots 8 Hyetcba, BovAopevors ovppaxot ToAAot 
pavncowwro. 


‘ Did such conduct show him to be a friend or a trattor ? 
Surely those rather were traitors who by such evil counsel 
had made so many enemtes. 


‘O raira otv voverGy ev TO havepo TdTEpa. eipeErijs 43 
dv duxalws 7 mpoddrns vopiCoro; obx of exApovs, @ 


118 HELLENICA II, C. 


404-403 Kpuirla, kwAvovres modAovs Trorete Oat, ovd’ of cvppydyxous 


B.C. 


mrelotovs biddoKovtes KTacOat, otro. Tovs moAEpious 
loxupovs mototo.y, GAAQ todd paAdov of ddixws Te 
? > lA N \ Ie >] nn 3 
Xpnuara adatpotpevor Kat rods ovdéy ddixodyras dmo- 
xrelvovres, ovtot elow of kal woAAovs Tous évayriovs 
qovobvres Kat mpodiddvTes ov pdvov Tovs didovs dAAa 


44 Kal éavrods 80 alcxpoxépderav. el 38 py) GAAwS yywordv 


Ste aAnOn A€yw, dde emoxépacbe. mdrepov olecde 
OpacvBovdrov cat “Avurov cai tovs GAAovs duyddas & 
éy® A€yw paddrov adv evOdde BovrAcobar ylyverbar 7 
& otro. mparrovow ; eye pey yap otua, viv wey adrovs 
vouicery ovppdyev mavta peorda elva’ el 8% TO Kpd- 
TioTOY THs MéAEwWS TpOTPAGs Huiv etxe, xaAeTOv dv 
nyetodat etvar kal Td émiBatvewy moe THs x@pas. 


‘ He had indeed turned against the Four Hundred, but only 
when he had perceived that they had deluded the people 
with the vain hope of a Spartan alliance. 


45 “A 8 ad cimey as ey@ elut ofos del more peraBdd- 


: , “A ‘ > X oN n 
AeoOat, Katavojoare kal Tadra. Thy pey yap én raév 
tetpaxoolwy modttelay Kat adrds Symov 6 dquos éeyy- 
dloaro, diidackdpnevos ws of Aaxedatdvior mdon ToAtrelg 


46 uaddov av 7 dnuoxparla muorevoeav. ere 3€ ye exeivor 


pev ovdey avieray, of Se dudi ’ApiororéAn cat MeAdvOcov 
kat *Aplorapxov otparnyotvtes gavepot éyévovto emi 
TO xXo@pmare .€pyua texlCovres, els 5 eBovAovTo Tots 
modeulous be€duevor Ud avroits Kal rots éralpois rH 
mow trowjoacba, el ratr alcOdpevos éya drexédrvea, 
Toor éort mpoddérny civat Tov didrov ; 


HELLENICA II, G.'3. | 119 


‘ He was nicknamed the Buskin for suiting both sides; but 404-408 
what of Critias who suited neither side? He had con- 8.©. 
ststently advocated a moderate constitution, opposed: alike 
to extreme democracy and extreme oligarchy. 


"Amroxadel 8 KdOopydy pe, as duorépors TEeipmpevov 47 
dpporrew. Saris de pnderépors dpéoxes, rodtoy & mpds 
TOY Deady rl more Kat Kadéoae xpy 3 ov yap dy. év pey 
7H Snuoxparla mdvrwv picodnudraros évoul(ov, év de TH 
dptoroxparia mdvrwy picoxpyordraros yeyévnoa. ey@ 48 
8, ® Kpirla, éxelvors pev del more modcue Tots od 
apdabev olowévors Kadjv dv dnuoxparlay etvat, mpty Kal 
of S08A01 Kat of 3° Anoplay dpaxpis dv aroddpuevor Thy 
modi dpaxpis peréxotev, Kal Totcdé y’ ad det évavatos 
elut of odk olovrat xadjy dv éyyevéoOar ddrtyapxlay, 
mp els To tn’ dAlywv TupayveioOa Thy méAW Kara- 
orjceay. 7d pévto. ov rois dvvapévots kat pel Unmev | 
Kal per donldav dpercly 51a TovTwy Thy Todurelav 
mpocbey &piotoy jyovpny etvar cat viv ov peraBdd- 
Aopae. 


‘Tf Critias could convict him of treachery to such a policy, 
he was indeed worthy of death? 


Ei 8 éxets elzeiv, ® Kpiria, Sov éyo ovv rots }y- 49 
PoTiKots 7 TupavyiKots TOUS KaAOovs Te kaya0ovs amooTe- 
peiy moAtrelas érrexelpnoa, Aéye’ Say yap edeyxOG 4 viv 
Tatra mpdTrwv 7 mpdTEepoy TaTOTE TETOLNKOS, GpoAoye 
Ta mdvtwv ~cxara Taber dy dixalws aToOvyicKey. 

Critias, seeing that Theramenes would be acquitted by the 
senate, arbitrarily erases his name from the roll of the 


Three Thousand and condemns him to death in the name 
of the Thirty. 


‘Qs 8 eixdv ratra énatcato, cal 7 Bovdt 377 50 


120 HELLENICA II, ©. 3. 


404-408 éydvero ehuevas emiOopBjcaca, -yvots 6 Kpirias bre 
el emirpéeyor TH Bovdy diaynpilerOat wept avrod, dva- 
gevEoto, kal Totro ov Biwrdy Tynodpevos, mpoceAOav 
kai dvarexOels Tu rots tprdxovra e&FAGe, Kal emiorhvat 
éxéXeuoe Tos TA eyxerpidia exovras havens TH BovdAy 

5lémi rots Spuddxrous. madw Se eloedAOov elev, *Eyo,. 
@ Bovdh, voul(w mpoordrov épyov eivat olov del, ds av 
dpGy tovs dlaous efanarwpévous pn emirpémn. Kal éya’ 
ovy Toro ToLjow. «Kal ‘yap olde of édeotnxdtes ov - 
gaow hiv emtpéwery, el dvncomev dvdpa tov havepads 
Thy ddtyapxlav Avpawdpevov. att S& Ev Tois Kawois 
vduows TOV pev ev Tois TpioxiAlots dytTwy pndéva ato- 
(Ovnokey dvev tis tyetépas Wydov, trav 8 ew Tov 
Katraddyov kuplous elvat tovs tpidxovta Oavarody. éya 
ov, pn, Onpapyevn rovrovi éfarelpw ex tod xatadd- 
you, ovvdoxody Gracw jyiv. xat todrov, pn, jets 
Oavarodtper. 


Theramenes takes refuge at the altar, appealing agatnst this 
tllegal procedure; but Critias, relying on the guard he had 
posted round the senate house, hands him over to the 
Eleven. 

52 *Axovcas tadra 6 Onpayévns dverjinoey ext rh 
“Eorlay kal eizev, "Eyo 8, fn, @ Gvdpes, ixeredw Ta 
advtwy éyyoustara, ph et Kpurlg etvar ebarelpew pre 
eué pte tuav bv dv BovAnrat, ddr’ SvTep vopov ovrot 
éypaay rept Tay év TO Kataddy@, Kata TodToy Kal tpiv 

53 xal éuol rHy Kpiow eva. Kal rotro pév, épy, wa Tovs 
Oeovs ovx ayvod, St. ovdév por dpkécer de 6 Bwyos, 
GAAG BovrAouat Kal TodTo émideifar, Ste obrot od pdvov 
elot mept avOpmmovs adiuxdraror, GAG Kal wept Oeods 
doeBéorarat. dav pévTor, py, @ avdpes Karol xdyadol, 


HELLENICA IL, ©. 4. 121 


davudcw, el pm BonOnoere duty adtois, kal tTadra ytyya@- 404-403 
> L 2 \ vw. ’ , A 4 B.C. 

oxovtes OTe ovdey TO eudyv Gvoma eve€adrermTdTEpoV 7 TO 
bya éexdorov. éx 8 rovrov éxdAece pev 6 TOY TpLG- 54 
Kovta knpv& Tous évdexa emt rov Onpayévyn. exetvor 5é 
eloeAOdvtes vv Tots Danperats, 7youpEevov a’rGvy Tarvpov 
Tod Opacurdrov te kal dvaidectdrov, eine pev 6 Kpirias, 
Tlapadisopen tiv, pn, Onpayévyn Tovtovi kataxexpiévov 

x N , e a“ “ , \ b] la e 
KaTa TOV popov’ vets b€ AaBovTEes Kat amayayovTes ot 
Evdexa of Set ra x TOUTwWY TpaTTETE. 


The senate, panic stricken, passively allows Theramenes to be 
dragged away from the altar and hurried to execution. 
fits last sayings. 


‘Qs 8¢ raira elmev, elke pév ard Tod Bapod 6 Tarv- 55 
pos, elAxov 88 of banpérar. 6 5¢ Onpapevyns domep elxds 
kal Oeovs émexadcito Kal avOpemovs Kabopay Ta ytyvd- 
peva. 1 5€ Bovdn novxlay elyev, dpGoa Kat Tovs ext 
tots Spupaxrots duolovs Zaripw Kai 7rd Eumpoobey rod 
BovAevrnplov mAhpes TGv hpovpGy, kat ovK ayvootpyres 
4 fi e > 3 4 55 
Ore éyyeipld.a @xovres mapijoay. of 8 amnyayor Tov 56 

X\ ” nr U nA mn a 
dvipa bia THs aGyopas pada peyadAn TH hwvy dndrodvra 

3? en \ “A 9 A e = 

ola émacyxe. Adyetat 8 ev phua kal todro adrod. ws elrev 
¢€ , b) XN , , sa 
6 Ldrvpos Gre oludEorro, ef 7) crwmyoerev, emnpeto, “Ap 
b¢ ciwmG, ovK Gp’, dn, oludfopar; Kai émel ye dmo- 
OyjoKkew dvayxaCopevos Td Kévetov me, TO AerTOpeEvOY | 
épacav anoxorraBicayra elzety abrov, Kpitla rotr éorw 
T) KAA. Kal Toro wey ovK ayvod, St Taira aTo- 
Pbéypata ovx afidAoya, exetvo 5& xplyw Tod dvdpds 
dyaotdy, Td TOO Oavdrov TapecTynKOTos pyTe TO Ppdviyopy 
pyre Td Taryyi@des dmoAutety éx Ths Wuyxijs. 


122 | HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 


CHAPTER IV. 


404-408 The T, hirty expel all not on the roll: of the Three Thousand 
B.C: Jrom Attica, The refugees assemble in Megara and 
Thebes. . | 


Onpapévns pev 57 ovTws améOavev" of 5& TpidKovTa, 
es ed 75n atrots Tupavvety ddeGs, Tpoetmoyv pey Tots 


é& Tod KaraAdyou pi elovevar els TO Gotu, iyov é ex 


Tov xwplor, ty abrot kat of piror rovs TovTwy dypods 
éxyorev. evydvtwy dé els tov Tleipara kal évredbev 
moAAovs ayovtes evétAnoay kal ta Méyapa xai tas 
O7nBas tay troy wpovvTwv. . 


Thrasybulus, starting from Thebes with a few refugees, seizes 
Phyle, repulses the attack of the Thirty, and makes a 

successful sally upon thetr camp, his forces being now 
increased to 700. . 


2 Ex 8% rovrov OpactBovdos dpundets ex OnBadv os 
avy EBdounkovta PAY xwploy katadapBavet loyupoy. 
of 88 Tptdxovra eBonOovy éx rod daorews avy TE Tots 

\ a ry aA AY 9 , 
tptoxtAlots Kxal avy Tots inmmedot wat par’ evnpepias 
avons. emel dé Adixovto, evOds pev Opacvydpevot tives 

n f t BN \ , Vv 2 7 N 
TOV vewy TpOTEBadoy Tpds TO xwploy, Kal étroinoay ev 

3 ovdev, Tpavpata bt AaBevres Ar7HAPOV. Bovdgwéever dé Tov 
TpidkovTa atrorety (Ce, Stws ExTroALopKyoeay avTovs aTr0- 
*, S. og a 39 ; ] , aA 
KAetoapres Tas époddouvs TGy éemiTndelwv, émtytyverat THs 

\ \ \ \ a e / € a 
VUKTOS XLOV TaRTANO}S Kat TH boTepaia. of ¢ vipopevor 
amnrdov els 76 dor, para ovyvovs TOY oKevopdpwv W170 

4 ray éx Dvds amoBaddvres. ytyvooxovtes 5é Gre kat ex 


Tov dypGv AenAarjoote?, el py Tis Pvdaxy Evowro, SvaTEp- 








\ 





HELLENICA II, € 4. 143 


3 \ 3 x: @& 4 : ‘4 a 
mova. eis Tas é€oxaTias Ooov TevTeKaideKa oTadia GTO 404-403 
PvAjs rovs te Aakxwyixots TARY drAlywv ppovpods kat BC, 
tv inméwy 500 pudds. ovrTor d¢ oTparoTedevoedpevor ev 
xopio Aaolp épiAarrov. 6 5€ OpacdBovdos, 75n ovv- & 
evleypevoy els tv PvdAny epi éEntraxociovs, AaBayv 
avrovs xaraBaiver Ths vuxtds’ Oépevos 5€ Ta StAa Soop 
Tpia 7) TéeTTapa oTddia and TGV hpovpGv jovxlav elyev. 
3 \ Ss N € / 3. 7? \ » > 4 
émel 5& mpds Fmepay eylyvero, kai 75 aviotavTo S101 6 
edeiro Exactos amd TGv SrAwy, kal of immoxdpor Yrnyov- 
Tes Tous tmmovs Woon exotouy, év TOUTH avadaBerTes ot 
mept OpacvBovdrov ra dA Opduw mporéminroy’ Kai gore 
bev obs abtGv xatréBadov, mdvras 5é tpevrduevor ediwkay 
e€ 7 énrad orddia, kal dwéxreway TGv pev 6TALTGY TA€OV 
A 5 4 \ ¢€ , la) XN ¢€ , , 4 : Q 
7 €tkoot Kat éxaToy, T@Y b€ imméwy Nuixdotparoy Te Tov 
KaAoy émixadovpevoy, kal dAAovs 5é dvo, ert KaradaBov- 
n . a , 

tes ev tats evvais. émavaxwpnoavres 5 xal tTpdmatov 7 

\ ¢ ¢ ; \ 
oTnodpevot kat cvoKevacdpevor StrAa te Goa éAaBov kal 
oxetn annrdOov émt Pvdfs. of 5& @€ dorews inmeis 

, “A N l4 +9 / b 4 te 

BonOnoavres Tov péev TodEuiwy ovdeva Ett Eldov, TpOT- 
peivavres 5€ Ews Tovs vexpovs avetAovto of mpoonKovTes 
‘dvexopnoay els dorv. | : 


The Thirty seize Eleusts as a place of retreat for themselves, 
by a stratagem capturing all the able-bodied Eleusinians. 
Next day they compel the Athenian knights and the Three 
Thousand to condemn all these prisoners to death. 


"Ex 5€ rovrou of tpidKovtra, ovKeTt vopicovTes dopadf 8 
opto. td mpdypata, éBovdnOncay ’Edevoiva éfididca- 
aOat, ore elvat cdplor Kxatadvyny, «i denoere. xal 
mapayyeldavtes tots inmedow FAOov els "EAevotva 
- Kpurlas re xat of dAAou tpidxovra’ eféracly te Tow- 
cavtes [ev trois immedor|, pdcxovres eldévar BovrcoOat 


124 HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 


404-403 méco. elev kal moons pvdaxis mpoodencowro, éxeAevov 
B.C. 

amoypaderOat mavtas* Tov dé amoypawdpevoy det bid 
Ths mvAtbos eri Thy Oadarray efrévar, emi b& To alyiar@ 
A “ A t \ 4 \ a 
Tous pev inmeas évOev cai évOevy xaréotnoay, tov 8 
e€idvta det ot vmnpérac.cuvedovy. emel 5 advtes 
cuverAnppéevo. yoav, Avolyaxov tov Immapxov éxédevov 
9 dvayayovta Tapadodyat avtovs tois evdexa. tH 8 

e 4 \ 9 a“ ‘\ 3 ” 
torepaia els 7d ’Qidetov mapexdAeoay tots ev To KaTa- 
Ady dmAlras Kal Tovs GAAovs imméas. avacras Se 
Kpirlas édefev, ‘Hyeis, bn, & avdpes, ovdiv Arrov tiv 
N V4 KA € n 3 rn nr a 
katackevd(ouev thy moAttelay 7) Hiv avrots. det ovv 
bas, domep kal TisGv pedeFere, otTw Kal TOV KivdvvwD 

4 n = > 
perexewy. Tv oy ovverAnupévoy *EXevowlwv - Kata- 
4 3. en an \ 
Wngtotéov éorly, tva tavTra nyiv Kal Oappyre kal 
goBnobe. SelEas S€ te xwplov, els rotro éxédeve 
10 pavepay depew THY Wipov. of 8 Aaxwyixol dpovpol 
éy T@ mutoe 708 "OQWelov efwmAiepevot joav" ” dé 
TadTa apeota Kal Tay TwoAiTOy ols TO TAEOVEKTELY udvov 
éwedev. 


Thrasybulus marches upon Piraeus, but unable to hold so 
large a town against the forces of the Thirty, ne a 
strong posttton on Munychia. 

"Ex 8@ rovrov AaBav 6 OpacvBovdros Tovs amd PvdA7s 

\ k 4 9 a na \ 
mept xtAlovs 75n cuvetreypevous, adixvetrar THs vUKTOS 

\ n € XS 9 \ “A 

els tov Iletpaca. of 5€ tpiaxovta émet noOovro tadra, 
evOus éBondovy atv te Tois Aaxwyixots cal ody Trois 
immedou kal Tots OmAirais’ émerta éx@povy Kara Thy els 
11 TOv Tletpara aGuakiroy dvadépovcay. of 5& amd PvaAfs 

4 XN / \ 9 3 4 \ XN 4 € 

rt pey emexelpnoay py aviévat adbrovs, émet 5€ peyas 6 

KUKAos Ov woAATS pvdaxis eddxet detcOat ow ToAAOCIS 

ovol, cvverterpdbnoay emi tiv Movvvxiay. of 8 éx rob 

aed D des 


ff 





HELLENICA Il, C.4. 125 


4 
dorews els thy ‘Immodduerov dyopay eAOdvres mp@Tov 404-403 
sey ovveragavto, SoTe eumArAnoat thy 6ddv H héper pds 
re TO lepov Tis Movvuxlas ’Apréutdos cat 76 Bevdideror { 23 
kal éyévovro Bdabos otk édatrov H émt TevtTHKovTa 
adonldwov, otrw d& cvurtetaypévor éx@povy dvw. of $€12 
amd PvAjs avrevénAncav pev thy 6ddv, Babos S€ ov 
mhéov 7 els dé€xa OmAlras éyévovto. érdxOnoay pévror 
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€m avTots meATOPdpo. TE Kat WiAol axovTioTai, emt b€ 
, 5? e t . . \ 
TovTois of meTpoBdAoL. oUTOL pEvTOL avyVOl Foay Kal 
\ 39» i ee 9 @ \ a 
yap avrd0ey mpoceyévovto. ev @ S€ mpoojoay ot 
évavtiot, OpacvBovdos tovs pe abrod OéoOar Kedevoas , 
tas aomtdas Kal adros Oeuevos, ra 8 GAAa Sarda exon, 
2 \ 
kaTa peoov oras eAEkev" | 


Thrasybulus addresses his troops. ‘On the right they had 
against them the men they had already defeated, on the left 
the hated Thirty. The gods were evidently now on. their 
side: for victory was certain over an enemy placed in so 
unfavourable a posttion.. 


“Avdpes woAtrat, Tous pev dvddEat, Tous 5 dvayrijcas 13 
e “a 4 is oN la , 7 ¢€ XN \ 

bpOv: BovrAopat Ste clot TGV TpocidvTwy ot pev TO dSeEvov 
ExovTes ods tyets Hucpay meumTny TpeYrapevor CiW£are, 

i 4 > 9 AQ “A 9 4 v7 e \ i 4 
ot & emt rod evwrvipov Eoxarot, oro. 57 of Tprdxovra, ot 

€ on \ 4 3 / ION b) a \ ? A 
nas Kal méAEws AteatEepouy ovdeyv GdiKodvTas Kal olkiGv 
éfjAavvov Kal Tovs pirrdrovs TGV HueTepwv amreonpat- 
vovTo, GAAG viv To. wapayeyevyvrat of ovToL ev OvTOTE 
.@ovTo, Huets Se det ndyoueOa. exovtes yap SmAal4 
évavtlo. pev avrots xabéorapev' of 5& Geol, Stu Tore Kat 
deumvobvTes rovehoBavdueda kat KaOevdovies Kat dyopd- ~~” 
Covres, of 5& Kat ovx Sms ddixoivres, GAN’ ovd émtd7n- 
podvres epvyadevdpeda, viv davepOs hyiv cvppaxodor. 

N 3. r/ a ; a e a! , 

Kat yap éy evdla xeava movovow, drayv july ovppepy 


126 - HELLENICA II, C. 4. 


i kat drav éyxetpapev, toAAGv nas évaytiov briyors 
"1g OUcL acne toracOat diddact Kai viv be sacle 


nuas els xwploy év @ odro. peyv otre BadAew ove dxov- 
, ey a NPA. ” 
tile bneép TOY MpoTeTaypevwny 51a TO Tpds GpOLovy lévat 
9 n 
dvvaivr’ av, nuets dé els TO KdravTes Kal ddpara aduévtes . 
kal dxovria Kal mérpous e&tEduebd Te ad’tav Kat moAXOvs 


16 katatp@oopev. Kal weTo pev dy tis denoew Tois ye 


mpwtoorarats éx Tod tocov paxecOar’ viv 8, éav tpeis, 
GowEp TpocnKet, Mpodvuws adijre Ta BEAN, Gpaprncerat 
Bev ovdels Gv ye meoty 7 6dds, PuAarrdépevor 5 SpaTe- 
, +e a) 5 o Ie! ¢ 
Tevcovow det b7d tais donlow doe soe ont Oamep 
rupdAods kal Tune Orrov dv Bovropeba Kal évaddopevous 
dvarpeémev. 7 : 


‘Every one of them must fight, remembering the high stakes 
_ at issue, and the vengeance due to all of them. 

"AAN’, @ dvdpes, otrw yp Tovey OTws Exaotds Tis 
éavta ovveloerat tis vixns aitwwraros Sv. atrn yap 
nyiv, dv Beds O€Ay, viv amoddce Kai Tarpida Kat ofkovs: 
kat éevdeplay kal rysds Kat tatdas, ols eloi, cat yr- 
vaikas. ® paxdptor dyra, ot dy huav vixnoavres emldwcr 
THY TacGv ndlorny juepav. ecvdaluov S& Kal dv ris 
aroddvyn’ prnuelov yap ovdeis ottw mAOvVoLos Gv Kadod 
revéerar. e£dptw pev ody eyo Avix dv Katpds 7 Tatava’ 
étay S¢ rdv *EvudAtoy tapaxadéowpev, TOTE TavTes 
duoOvpaddy av’ Sv dBploOnuev Tinwpdyeba rods avdpas. 


Warned by the seer, who ts himself the first to fall, Thra- 
sybulus watts for the enemy to attack, whereupon he gains 
a complete victory, Critias himself being among the slain. - 
Taira 8 elrav kal peractpadels mpds Tovs évavriovs, 
novxtlay élye’ Kal yap 6 pavris mapyyyeAAev adtots pt 


6 








HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 127 


mpdrepoy emirlOecOat, mpl rav odetépwr 7 Técou Tis 7) 404-403 
rpwheln? eredayv pévror Toto yevntat, nyngéueda perv, 
épn, ques, vikn 8% tyiv ~orar Emopevois, euol pevtor 
Oavaros, ds y euot doxet. Kal odk efevoaro, add’ énel 19 
dvéhaBov Ta SmAa, adros péev Gomep t1d polpas Tivds 
dydpuevos exmndncas mp@tos’ éumecady Tots ToAEpiots . 
anobyyncke, cal réOatrar év TH diaBdoet Tod Kyndicod™ 

of 8 dAdo evixwy Kal xarediwgay péxpt Tod dpadod. 
améBavov 8 évraida tév pév tpraxovra Kpirlas re Kai 
‘Inmdpayos, ray dt év Tletpacet Séxa dpydvrav Xappldys 

6 TAavxwvos, trav 8 aAAwv tepl EBdounKovta. Kal Ta 

pev StAa éhaBov, rods 5€ xiT@vas ovdevds TOY TOALTOV 
éoxvAevaap. | 


When after the battle the troops of the two factions met 
together, Cleocritus, the sacred herald, proclaims on be- 
half of the refugees with Thrasybulus, that they had no 
quarrel with their fellow-citizens, but only with the Thirty, 
who in eight months had caused the death of more Athe- 
nians than the Lacedaemontans in ten years. The Thirty 
withdraw their forces to Athens. . | 
"Emel 88 rotro éyevero Kal Tovs vexpovs tmoondvdous 

anediSocav, mpooidvres GAAMAots TOAAOL BreA€yovTo. 

KAedxpiros 5@ 6 Trav prvotaey Kijpv§, wad’ edhwvos dv, 20 

KaTraqiwmnoduevos édeEev, “Avdpes todtrat, tl huas éfe- 

Aavvere ; Ti amroKTetvar BovrAcoOe; Huets. yap Has Kakov 

pev ovdey ma@moTe emomjoapev, perecxnkapev Se tyiv Kat 


icpv rév ceuvordray kat Ovordy xat éoprdv rSv xar-~ [oe 
Alorwy, kal cvyxopevtal Kal cvppoirntal yeyevneda Kar 
gvoTpati@rat, kal ToAAd ped Dov Kextvduvevkapev Kal — 

kata yiv kat xara Oddarray imtp Tis Kowns dydorepwr 

nuav cwrnplas te Kat édevdeplas. mpos Oey TaTpdwv 21 

kal untpgov Kat ovyyevelas Kal xnd_eorlas’ Kal éraiplas, + (25) | 


404-403 


B.C. 


22 


23 


128 HELLENICA II, C. 4. 


TaVTWY yap TOUTWV TOAAOL KOLWwWVOdMEV GAARAots, aldov- 
pevor Kat Oeovs kal avOporovs mavoacbe duaprdvortes 
eis THY TaTplda, Kal py TelOece Tos dvoowwTdTots TpLd- 
Kovta, ot ldlwy Kepdéwy Evexa odrlyou deiv mAclous ameK- 
tovacw 'AOnvaiwy év éxtd pnolv 4 mdvtes TleAomov- 
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avOpdrois méAeuov uty mpds AGAANAOUS Tapexovor. 
GAN’ &D ye pévto. enloracbe Sti cal Tay viv bh huav 
b) ,, 9 , et on 9 N ye a a 
atoavovTwy ov povoy tyeis GAAG Kal jets Eativ ods 
WoAAG katedaxptcapev. 6 pev Toradra eAreyev’ of Se 
Aowtol dpyovres Kal 8a Td Tovadra Tpocakovew Tovs 


pe? attav annyayov eis Td dorv. 


At a meeting of the senate open dissension breaks out among 
the Three Thousand, until they vote to depose the Thirty. 
and appoint Ten in thetr place. 


Tn 8 torepaig of wey tpiaxovra tavu $7) Tamewol Kat 
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b , 54 aS DS 3 / t , \ 
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Xpivar wel(OecOat ovd’ emirpémery amoAAUvaL THY TOALY. 

\ a 7 a 
Kat TO TeAevTatoy eWydloavto éxelvous pev Kkatanadoat, 

° . , . nw 
GAAovs Se EA€oOat. kal efAovro déxa, Eva amd vais. 








‘HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 129 


The Thirty retire to Eleusis. The Ten supported by the 408-402 
Knights keep guard over the city. Their opponents at : 

_ Piraeus make new weapons and organize their ever increas- 
ing forces. 


Kai of pev tpidxovra ’Edevotydde amjAGov’ of 8¢ 3éxa 24 
rév éy Gores kal uddAa Terapaypévwr Kal damorovytoy 
dAANAots ody Tots tmmdpyos emeuerAovto. e&exdevdov 
be kai of immets ev ro ’“Qidel, rovs re Immovs Kal ras 
donldas éxovres, xat 80 amotlay epddevoy 7d py ad’ 
éonépas avy tats donlot cata tra telyn, To be Tpds 
GpOpov ory tots tamors, det PoBovpevor py emecomécorey 
Tives avtots T&v éx Tod TletparGs. of 8 woAAol re 47d 25 
dvres xal wavrodamol, StAa erotodvro, of wey EvAwa, of 
dé oloviva, kal radra éAevxodvro. apiv de nudpas déxa 
yevéoOar, mora SdvTes, olrives cvpmoAeunoeray, Kai el 
févo. elev, loorérdccay eveoOar, effoay moddol pev 
OmAtrat, woAAol 5&8 yuuvires® éyévovro 8& atrots Kal 
immeis &s ef EBdounKovTa’ Tpovouds d& ToLovpevor, Kat 
AauBdvovtes LUAa kal dadpav, éxdbevdov mddrww ev 
Tlecpacet. == 


Meantime they make constant sallies, in revenge for which 
the knights ruthlessly butcher some Axionians. In return 
they kill the knight Callistratus, and soon venture to march 
close up to the walls of Athens. 


Tév 8 éx rod dorews GAdos pév obdels cby SrAors 36 
efjet, of 8¢ inmets Eorw bre cal Anotas éxetpodvTo Tay 
éx rod Tletpaids, xat riv pddayya abray exaxovpyouv. 
meptervxoy 8& Kxal rév Al£wvéwy ticly els rots atradv 
dypous éml ra émirndeca wopevouévors’ cai rovrovs Avol- 
paxos 6 tnnapxos anéodpage, woAAa AtTavevovras Kai 
I 


130 HELLENICA II, C. 4. 


408-402 moAAGy xaderas hepdvrwr iaawy. advranéxrevay 8% — 
ree a7 Kat of éy Ietpaet ray innéwy én’ aypod AaBdyTes KaaA- 
Alorparoy gvAfs Acovridos. Kal yap 43n péya édpd- 
vouy, GoTE Kal Mpos TO Tetxos TOD dorews TpooéBadAov. 
el 3¢ Kal rotro Set elmetv rod pnxavoro.od trod ev Te 
Gores, ds éxet éyyw drt kata Tov éx Avxelov dpduov pér- 
Aotey Tas pnxavas Tpocaye, Ta Cedyn exéAEvoe TdVTA 
Guafalovs AlOovs adyew cal xaraBdAAew Srov Exacros 
Bovrotro rod Spduov. as be rodro éyéveto, ToAAG els 

Exacros tay AlOwy Tpdypatra Tapelye. 


In response to an appeal from the Three Thousand at Athens 
a esetiee and the Thirty at Pswaeus, the Spartans send out Lysander 
. as harmost and his brother as admiral to blockade Piraeus, 
so that the tables ave once more turned. 


28 Ileundvrwy 3¢ apéoBers els Aaxedalyova ray prev 
tptdxovra é€ ’EAevoivos, tay 3° év rg Katraddyp ef do- 
Tews, Kat BonOety KeAevdvTwy, @s ApeornKdTos Tod Sypou 
dd Aaxedatpovlwv, Avoavdpos Aoytodpevos re oldy Te 
ein Taxd exmoAtopxjoa rods év re [letpacet xara re yay 
kat xara OdAartrap, el trav emirndelwy atoxAccOeinoay, 
ouvénpagey éxardv te tddavra avtots davecOqvat, Kat 
avrov pev xara yhv dppoorny, AiBuv b& tov ddeAdov 

29 pavapxodvra éxmeppOjvar. Kai e€eAOov airdos pev 
’Edevoivdde cvvédcyev SmAlras Todos [leAotovynatovs" 
6 8& vavapyos cata OdAarray édvAarrey Srws pndev 

' elomdéou airots tay émityndelwy' dore raxd madw év 
dropla joav ot év Tlepaset, of 8 ev roe Gores maAw ad 
péya éppdvovy én ro Avodvipe. 


| HELLENICA II, c. 4. 131 


But Pausantas, out of jealousy against Lysander, persuades 408-402 
. three of the ephors to let him head a second expedition B.C. 
to Athens. All the allies follow him, except the Corin- 
thians and Boeotians, who refuse to join, and with them he 
encamps near the Piraeus. 
Ofrw 5 tpoxwpotvrwy Tavcavias 6 BactAeds pOorn- 
cas Avodvipw, el xateipyacpévos Tatra dpa piv e- 
Soxyujoot, dua be ld3las moujcotro ras "AOjvas, meloas 
tay épdpwy tpeis eEdyer ppovpdy. avveltovto dé Kai of 80 
ovppaxot.mavtes TARY Bowréy kat KopwOlwv: otros 
be Zkeyov pey Sre ov voulCorey evopxety dv otparevd- 
evo. ér "A@Onvalovs pndéy mapdomovdov trotodyras*’ 
émpartoy 5é Tatra, Sri éylyvwoxoy Aaxedatpovlovs Bov- 
Aopévovs THY TOV "AOnvalav xdpav olkelay Kai mioTHy 
mowjcacda. 6 d& Ilavaavlas éorparomedevcato pev év 
TO ‘Aditéd@ Kadovpévp mpds TO Tletparet Se£cdv exwv 
xépas, Avoavdpos 8¢ atv tots picOoddpos Td €va- 
yupov. 


Pausanias summons the refugees at Piraeus to disperse, and 
on their refusal makes a half-hearted attack upon them. 
Failing in this and in a similar attack the next day 
he advances with all his forces and gains a complete 
victory over Thrasybulus and his supporters. 

Tléurwv 8¢ mpécBers 6 Maveavlas mpds rovs év Te- 31 
paret éxéAevey ameévar emi ra Eavtdv® eet 8 ovK émel- 
Oovro, mpooéBaddev Soov amd Bofjs Evexev, Stas pH 3+ 
djAos ely edperns atrois wy. érel 8 ovdey amo THs 
mpoaBoAns mpagas anfrGe, rH totepala AaBov Trav pev 
Aaxedapovloy dv0 pdpas, rév 5é ’AOnvalwv inméwy tpeis 
guAds, napnrOev én rdv kwpdv Aipéva, oxoTGY TH eva- 
moretxtotoraros etn 6 Iletpaceds. eel 5¢ amidvros avrod 32 
mpooébedy Ties Kal Mpdypata aiT@ mapetxoy, axbeaOeis 

12 


“ 


132 HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 


{ 
403-402 mapyyyetA€ Tous pev inmeas édAapv els avrots evévtas, Kat 


Ycog. : 


ee 


7a déxa ad’ HBns cuvémerOat’ ory be rots GAAots adrds 


pote ‘+s anxodovOe. xa anéxreway uty éyyds tpidxovra Tov 


Wirdy, tos 8 &dAovs xaredlwfav mpds 1d Tletpasot 


83 Oéatpov. éxet 5 Ervyoy efomAGpevor of Te. weATACTal 


mavres Kal of OmAtrat tev éx Tletpards. xat of pev yidot 
evOds exdpaydvres nxdvriCov, €BaddAov, érd€evov, éodev- 
ddvwv’ of 5& Aaxedausdvior, éret avrGy moAAol ériTpe- 
OKOVTO, pdAa me(duevor avexspovy emi mdda. of F ev 
TOUT® TOAD PGAAop eméxewvTo. evTadba Kat anobvyncKe 
Xalpwv re xa OlBpaxos, dudw moAcudpyw, cat Aaxpd- 
rns 6 dAvptiovinns Kal GAXot of reBapypévor Aaxedatpo- 


34 vlwy mpd Tay wvAGY év Kepaperxo. dpdv Se tadra 6 


@pacvBovdos xai of GAAoL StATrar, éBonOovy, kal raxv 

mapetafavto mpd TGv GAAwpy én’ dxro. 6 5 Tavoavlas 

pdda mecbels cal dvaxwpnoas Soov orddia rérrapa 7 
, \ 4 4 ral 

mévTe Tpos Adhov tid, TaphyyerA€ Tots Aaxedarpovtors 


, Kat Tots GAAos ouppdaxots emixwpety Tpos EauTdv. exer 


35 


8% ovvrafduevos TavTedGs Babeiay thy pddayya Fyev 
émt rovs A@nvaiovs. of 8 els xetpas wey ed€£avro, émerra 
5é of pev eLedoOnoap els tov év Tats “Adrats myAd», ot Sé 
évéxAwwav’ kat anoOvnocKovew avtay os TEvTHKOVTA Kal 
éxarov. : 


Pausanias urges the two factions at Piraeus and Athens to 
send envoys to him and the ephors present in his camp, 
and when they arrive in obedience to his summons, he sends 
them on to Sparta, where they both tender a complete sub- 
mission to the Lacedaemontan supremacy. 


“O 8 Tavravias rpématoy otnodyevos avexépnoe’ Kat 
ovd’ Ss apyicero abrois, AAAG AdOpa TéeuTHOY edidacKeE 
Q a \ f / / 
rous év Iletpacet ofa xpi) A€yovras mpéeoBes TEepTrely 








HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 133 


mpos éavtoy kal Tovs Tmapdvras épdpovs. of 8 érelOovro. 408-402 
? XN XN a Q nr B.C. 
dilorn Se Kal rods év ro doret, cal exédAeve mpds ohas 
mpootevat ws tAelorovs ovdAeyopuevous, A€yovtas sre 
ovdey déovrar Trois év ro Tletpacet moAeuetv, AAAG Siadv- 
Oévres Kxown auddrepor Aaxedaipovlois piror elvat. 
ndéws 5& Tatra xal Navxdeldas Epopos dv cuvykover" 36 - 
Oonep yap voulCerar otv Bactret bv0 Tév épdpwv ov- 
orparevecOat, kal tére Taphy ovTds Te Kal GAXos, audd- 
A > , a “A n 
Tepor THs peta Llavoavlov yveuns dvtes madAov 7H THs 
pera Avodvipov. ba tatra ovv kal els tiv Aaxedalpova 
TpoOdpws Emeutrov Tovs T éx Tod.Tewparés éxovras tas 
mpos Aaxedaiovlovs omovdds Kai rods dnd Tay ey To 
adore. léuaras, KngicopGvra te xat MéAntov. émel 87 
4 e # \ N 
Mévrot ovToL @xovTe els Aaxedalyova, exeurrov 57 Kat 
of dd Tod Kowod éx tod dorews A€yovras Sri avrot pev 
mapadiddact Kat Ta Telyn & Exovot Kai opas adrovs 
Aaxedatpovlors xpyodas 8,7. BovrAovrar’ dfvabv 8 Epacav 
Kal tovs éy Tepace?, eb pido. actly elvar Aaxedarpo- 
vlows, mapadiddvac tév tre Tlepara xat ryv Movvrxlav. 
e 


- > = oa 


The Spartan government despatches jifteen commisstoners 

to arrange the terms of reconciliation. These settled, Pau- 

santas dtsbands his army, and Thrasybulus marches up to 

Athens. | 

’Axovoavtes 88 mdvtwv aire of Epopot kal of ExxAnro: 38 (206) 
efénmeupay mevrexaldexa dvdpas' els tas *AOjvas, Kat | 
énéragay otv Tlavoavla diaddAdgar San dSbvaivro Kdad- 
Atora. of Se dujdAAaLay ed’ dre elpnynv pev Exew pds 
GAAnAOvs, amiévar 8& emt Ta éaurGyv exdorovs TARY TOV 
Tpidkovta Kal T&y Evdexa xal TGv ev r@ Tepacet dpEdv- 
tov déxa. el d€ TwWes hoBoivto Tav e& dotews, doer 
avrots *EAevoiva xaroueiy. tolitwy 8& Tepaybévtwy 80 





134 HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 


408-402 Tlavoavlas pev dupKe TO orparevpa, of dé éx rod Tlepads 


B.C. 


(337) 


avehOdvres ovv Tois StAots els THY axpémodw éOvoay TH 
AnyG.- 


SPEECH OF THRASYBULUS.’ 


‘On what grounds did their opponents claim to rule over 
them? Facts had shown them to be no juster, braver, or 
wiser than themselves. Even the Lacedaemonians had for- 
saken them. Once more he wished his followers to show 
themselves the better men by keeping their oath of recon- 
ctliation. 


"Exel 5% xatréBnoapv of orparnyol, évOa 57 6 Opaci- 
40.Bovdos ércfev, “Yuiv, épn, @ ex tod dotews advipes, 
ovuBovretw ey® yvdvar tas avrovs. pddtora 8 dy 
yvolnre, ef dvadroyloacbe emi ri tpivy péya porr- 
téov éoriv, Sore pov dpxeuw CmLX ELpELY. wOrepon d- 


muirepol éore; GAA’ G | bev djmos_mevéorepos Susy dy 
ovdey emote EveKa dtwy tas noikynxer® tyeis dé 
kat aloxpa évexa 


mAovotwrEepor TdyTwy dytes TOA 
Kepdéwy Temoinkate.. émet 5€ Suxaroovyns ovdev tyiv 
mpoonke, oxeyacbe el dpa én’ avdpela tyiv péya dpo- 
41 yytéov. ai tls dv xadAlwv Kplows rovrov yévoiro 4 as 
érrodeunoapey mpds GAAHAoUS; GAAG youn galyr’ dv 
mpoéxew, ot gxovres Kai relyos xat Sada Kat ypypara. 
kat ovppdxovs TleAotovynolovs ind trav ovdév totvroy 
éxovTwy mapadhédvobe; GAN’ én ee naa a 
oleode péya ppovnréov elvat; ms, olye & wep Tous 
ddxvovtas xivas Kdoww dycavtes Tapadiddacw, ofr 
Kaxeivo. tuas tapaddvtes TO Hotknueve ToT dyyu@ ot- 
42 xovtat dmidytes 3 ov pévrou ye tpas, @ avdpes, af1G eyo 
Gv déuwpdxate tapaBjvat ovdéy, GAAG Kal TodTo mpds 





HELLENICA II, ©. 4. 135 


Trois GAAots KaAdots émbdetéar, Ort Kal evopxor cat Sorol 403-402 
B.C. 

éote. ela 5€ tadra cal GAAa rovatra, at Ste ovder 

déo. tapdrrecOat, GAAG Tois vduors Tots apxalos xp7- 

c0at, dvéornoe Ti éxxAnolav. 


The Athenians then reorganize their constitution; but shortly 
afterwards, hearing the Thirty are forming a conspiracy, 
they setze and slay their generals, but come to terms with 
the rest, to which ever since they have faithfully adhered. 


Kat rére pev dpyds xatracrnodpevoe erodrevoyro' 48 
torépm 8€ xpdvm dxovoavres Févouvs prcOoicbat rods 
’"EAevotyi, orparevodpevor Tavdnpel em airovs Tous pév 
atparnyous avtay els Adyovs eAPdvras améxTEway, Tots 
8 BAAows elomeuwavres rods pidovs kal. dvayxatovs 
émetoav gwvanda vipat kat dudaavres Spxovs F pjy ph 
* pynoikaxjoew, ere kal vov dyed Te ToALTEvovTaL Kat TOUS 
Spxots éupéver 6 Shpos. 


mn clear nn” aT EN TS cman “SEREEEMEOT we 


—— eee ~——— —— 


Clarendon Press Series 


-XENOPHON 
HELLENICA, BOOKS I, II 


WITH INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 


BY 


G. E. UNDERHILL, M.A. 


FELLOW AND TUTOR OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE . 


PART II.—NOTES 


Oxford 


AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 
1888 


[ 44 rights reserved | 


Zondon 
HENRY FROWDE 





OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE 


AMEN CORNER, E.C. 


NOTES. 


-§ 1. Merd 8¢ raira. For the interval that must have elapsed between Boox I. 
the points, where Thucydides’ narrative ends and Xenophon’s begins, mr 
see Introd. pp. 6, 7. 

avs, in a second battle; the Athenian victory at Cynossema being { 
apparently the first (Thuc. viii. 106). 
 -§ 2. é&« ‘PéSov. For the positions of Dorieus, Mindarus, Tissaphernes, 
and Alcibiades at this time see Introd. pp. 6, 7. 

sois orpaTnyois, i.e. Thrasyllus and Thrasybulus (Thuc. viii. 104), 

@s fvorye, ‘as soon as he got clear,’ i.e. of the narrow strait of 
the Hellespont. swept 7d ‘Polrevov must be joined with mpés tiv yfv 
dveBiBate. The imperfect tense expresses the attempt. 

§ 3. els MdSurov, in the Thracian Chersonese not far from Sestos. 

: 4. emt riv OdAarray, i.e. to Abydos. 

§ 5. €€ éw@ivod. Mindarus had moved his fleet from Elaeus to Abydos 
(cf. Diod. xiii. 45), so that, since Ilium is twenty miles from Abydos, 
and since he saw Dorieus entering dua ppépq, in all probability the fight 
must have been renewed the day after Dorieus’ arrival in the Hellespont. 
Moreover the Athenian ships seem (cf. §§ 2, 3) to have sailed from 
Madytus, fought against Dorieus and returned to Madytus again before 
the second battle—a process, which, considering the twenty or thirty 
miles thus traversed, must have occupied several hours. Further, since 
Madytus was nearly opposite to Abydos, the second battle must have 
been fought somewhere between the two cities, and consequently much 
higher up the Hellespont than the first. Diodorus (1. c.) speaks of one 
battle only, making Mindarus sail down from Abydos to the support of 
Dorieus at the Dardanian promontory. Accordingly Breitenbach, wish- 
ing to reconcile the two accounts, regards éf éwvov as an interpolation. 

§ 6. PapvaBalos was satrap of Phrygia Minor and Bithynia, and 
was now in league with the Peloponnesians (Thuc. viii. 80, 99). 

§ 7. ovpdpdfavres, ‘having formed in close order.’ 

§ 9. ovAAaBov. Though after this Alcibiades could never again hope 
to delude the Athenians with promises of Persian aid (Thuc. viii. 82), 
his own naval successes round Samos and now in the Hellespont seem 
to have been sufficient to secure for him their confidence. Tissaphernes 

A232 3 





Book I. 


7 


i; 


HELLENICA. 


evidently wanted to retrieve his position in the opinion of the Peloponne- 
sians (Thuc. viii. 109). 

§ 10, perd MavriOéov: Mantitheus is mentioned again i. 3. 13. 

§ 11, of 8’ é& Syorg, «.7.A. From this point some commentators 
date the campaign of 410-409, because Diodorus says that the battle of 
Cyzicus was fought 959 rov xeiu@vos Afyovros. But Diodorus by the 
end of the winter means February, not, like Thucydides and Xenophon, 
the beginning of April. 

els KapSfav. On the west coast of the Chersonese. 

§ 12. Onpapévys. (Diod. xiii. 47, 49.) After trying in vain to prevent 
the Euboeans and Boeotians from uniting Euboea with the mainland by a 
bridge across the Euripus, Theramenes had sailed to the Aegean islands 
in order to replace the democracies in the various states, had then lent 
aid to king Archelaus of Macedon in the siege of Pydna, and finally 
joined Thrasybulus (cf. supr. § 8) on the Thracian coast. 

§ 13. éeAopévors Ta peydAa toria, ie. the sails of the greater of the 
two masts. So too, vi. 2. 27, Iphicrates leaves his large sails behind 
to make his ships lighter and more manageable for fighting. 

els TIdptov. On the E. shore of the entrance to the Propontis. 

§ 14. abrtois, i.e. rots orparidras in the éxxAnoia. 

§ 15. dpploavro, i.e. at Proconnesus in the Propontis. 

§ 16. éredi 8’ éyyvs, «.7.A. See note on the battle of Cyzicus at the 
end of the volume. 

én’ atrod, i.e. by Alcibiades. Cobet and others conjecture dw’ 
avrov, ‘from the harbour’; an idea already sufficiently expressed by 
aéreAnppévas. 

§ 18. rats etxoot. The article is accounted for by the previous mention 
of the Athenian fleet (cf. infr. i. 6. 26). There is no need to suppose 
that dpiora:s has dropped out of the text (cf. Plut. Alc. 28). 

, Gmdoas. The Peloponnesians did not succeed in collecting a fleet 
again till Lysander was appointed admiral in 408 B.c.; cf. Plato, 
Menex. 243 0G péy Huépg macas rds Tov moAEpiow éAdyTes vais. 

Avpaxootwy. Thucydides (viii. 26) relates that the Syracusans had 
sent a squadron under Hermocrates to aid the Lacedaemonians. 

§ 21. TlépivOov xat SnAvBpiav. Both on the N. coast of the Propontis. 

§ 22. XpvodaoAw, on the Bosporus, opposite Byzantium. 

Sexareutiptov. The establishment of this custom-house was of the 
greatest importance to Athens now that her treasury was exhausted, and 
she had lost so many of her subject allies, more especially Euboea 
(Thuc, viii. 95). 

eEéXeyov ... kal... é xaraAurévres: from the confusion of the 
order of thought in.these two lines, commentators have suspected the 
MS. reading. 


4 


NOTES. CH. 1, § 10—$§ 29. 


5 23. émorodéws: this officer held the second command in the lace Book I. 
daemonian fleet (cf. vi. 2. 25 and note oni. 5. 1). =~ 

é4Aw. The MSS. read édAwoar. 

KGAa. This is Bergk’s conjecture for the MS. xadd. The word 
is equivalent to ¢yAa and is used by Aristophanes, Lys. 1251, to denote 
ships. 7d «add =‘ our honour is gone’ hardly seems to suit the passage. 

amecova, Doric form of dreovf, aor. pass. of dmoaetm, is explained 
by Eustathius as aw7nAde, réOvnxe. 

mewOvr. rdévSpes. dtroplopes. Doric for revaor of dvipes. dropotpev. 
For the offers of peace apparently made by the Spartans at this time 
(cf. Introd. pp. 11, 26). 

§ 24. PapvdBafos. Diodorus (xiii. 51) says that the Peloponnesians 
fled to his camp. 

§ 25. rovs dad trav wéAcwv orpatnyous, i.e. the generals from the 
several states in the Peloponnesian confederacy. 

§ 26. vaunyoupivwv. Genitive absolute, sc. abray. 

§ 27. "Ev 8¢ 1 xpéve totre. This and the similar formulae in §§ 31, 
32, 33 seem to mean that all the events here mentioned occurred just 
about the time of.the battle of Cyzicus. 

“Eppoxpdrous. The leader of the oligareioal party at Syracuse 
(cf. Thuc. viii. 85). 

'  pepvnpévous... trdpxovoav. In the MSS. these words are placed 
after xpjvae d:dévac in § 28. In this case the phrase Adyov d:5dvar would 
have to bear the unusual sense ‘to give an opportunity of speaking,’ and 
the words pepynpévous . . . bmdpxovoay must then be an appeal made by 
the generals to their soldiers to give them a fair hearing, when they 
returned to Syracuse,—an appeal quite uncalled for after the loyalty 
which these soldiers had just shown them. If however the words be 
transposed, with Dindorf; to their present position in the text, the passage 
at once becomes intelligible. When the soldiers refused to elect new 
generals, notwithstanding the news that the present generals had been 
exiled, Hermocrates told them that they ought not to rebel against the 
home government ; but that if any one had any charge to make against 
himself or his colleagues, both he and they were in duty bound to give 
an account of their commands. As however no one brought any accu- 
sation against them, they consented to continue in command till their 
successors arrived. 

vevuenjkare. Many parallels may be found for this abrupt change 
to the oratio recta (cf. infr. i. 4. 14, vi. 5. 35, etc.). 

fperépav... dperépav. There is no need to transpose these words : 
dperf can very well mean courage and skill in commanding ; tpo@upla, 
sc. TaY orpariwray, ‘zeal in obeying.’ 

§ 29. Seopévwv. Genitive absolute. 


+} 


Book I. 
—_+4—— 


I. 


HELLENICA. 


karagewv, ‘ would bring them back from exile.’ 

§ 30. mpocoptAotvres, The pres. part. expresses frequency. 
dv = Tovrayv obs. 
dveEuvodro. Doric for dvexorvotro. 

§ 31. katnyopjoas, Thucydides (viii. 85) narrates, how in 411 B.c. Her- 
mocrates had accused Tissaphernes at Sparta of playing a double game 
between the Peloponnesians and Athenians. He is mentioned (infr. i. 
3. 13) as accompanying some Spartan envoys, who, at the same time as 
some Athenian envoys, were to meet Pharnabazus at Cyzicus, 409 B.C. 
Since Diodorus puts his expedition against Syracuse in 408 B.C.,. it must 
have been shortly after this meeting that he obtained from Pharnabazus 
the assistance described in this passage.. Tissaphernes was the personal 
enemy of Pharnabazus. 

év rove 52 FKov, cf. guevav ws ddixovro. . . dwenéwpavro. The 
chronological sequence of events here seems to be hopelessly confused. 
How could the old generals have at the same time waited for the new 
ones to arrive and been sent on their way with promises of future help? 
Why in § 31 does Xenophon tell the story already narrated by Thucy- 
dides (viii. 85) of what had already happened to Hermocrates early in 411, 
and couple with that his visit to Pharnabazus, which must certainly have 
been subsequent to his exile, mentioned in § 27 as apparently occurring 
about the beginning of 410 B.C.? and why does he insert at this point his 
preparations for-his attack upon Syracuse, which was not actually made 


- till 408 B.C. according to Diodorus (xiii. 63)? Again, to what interval 


of time does év rovry refer? for the new ships building at Antandros in 
the spring of 410 cannot have been finished till the summer, i.e. after 
the beginning of the next.campaign. Perhaps it may be interpreted 
to mean the time following the agreement made between the old generals 
and the army, inclusive of the time required for building the ships. #xov 
must therefore be translated as a pluperfect, ‘had arrived.’ 

eis M(Anrov. This agrees with Thucydides, l.c. 

§ 32. "Ev Odom. Thasos had revolted from Athens in 411 B.C., two 
months after Diotrephes, an Athenian oligarch, had put down the 
democracy, then existing, in favour of an oligarchy (cf. Thuc. viii. 64), and 
had since submitted to the government of a Spartan harmost. Now it 
appears that the popular party under Ecphantus had expelled Eteonicus 
the harmost and his supporters, and admitted Thrasybulus with an 
Athenian force just after the battle of Cyzicus: cf. this section with 
§§ 22. 12, and with Demosthenes (c. Lept. § 67), who adds that this 
affair further led to rdv wept @pasny rérov entering the Athenian alliance. 

dppoorfs. In 423 B.C. the Spartans appointed governors in 

Thrace (Thuc. iv. 131), and in 413 king Agis made Alcamenes harmost 

of Euboea (Thuc. viii. 5). But it was not till the admiralty of Lysander, 
6 


NOTES. CH.I, § 30—CH. II, § 1.- 


408 B.C., that it became a principle of the Lacedaemonian hegemony 
to appoint these officers backed up by oligarchies of ten in all the subject 
states; cf. Diod. xiv. 10 xaracrnoavres 8% vatapyoy Avcayipoy rovry 
npootragay émmopevecOa Tas méAEs év ExdoTy Tovs Nap abTois Kadoupévous 
dppoords éyrabiordvra’ Tais yap Snpoxparias mpooxémrovres of Aaxedat- 
pémos &’ dAryapxlas éBovAovro Tas wéAEts SiocxetoOar. Other instances of 
harmosts in these books are (i. 2. 18) Labotas in Heraclea, (i. 3. 5) 
Hippocrates in Chalcedon, (i. 3. 15) Clearchus in Byzantium, (ti. 3. 14) 
Callibius at Athens. . 

TlacwrniSas. It is impossible to determine whether Pasippidas 
was actually vavapxos in succession to Mindarus, or whether he merely 
filled his place till the newly appointed successor Cratesippidas arrived. 

§ 33. AexeAefas. Agis had commanded this émrexiopds ever since 


_its fortification in 413 B.C. (Thuc. vii. 19). 


@paovdAos had returned to Athens immediately after the battle at 
Abydos (supr. § 8) to procure reinforcements. 
§ 34. Trav én éow, ‘ of those in the rear.’ 
§ 35. oXioor kal Sev, ‘should also seize the places from which, etc.’ 
kal KAéapxov. «al is to be retained: the passage means that, just 
as Agis prevented provisions coming into Athens by land, so also Clear- 
chus was to do the same by sea. Clearchus had been designated to 
command a squadron in the Hellespont in 412 B.C., and on his arrival 
there in 411 B.C. Byzantium had revolted to him (Thuc. viii. 8, 39, 80). 
§° 36. els Snordév. Sestus was at this time occupied by the Athenians 
(cf. supr. § 11), so that it has been proposed to read els “ABvdov. 


§. 37. “AwiBa. This Hannibal was the son of Gisco, and according - 


to the narrative of Diodorus (xiii. 62) he captured Himera two years 
later, in 409 B.C. Dindorf regards this reference to Sicilian affairs and 
the similar ones ini. 5. 21, ii. 2. 24, so too the references to Persian 


history, i. 2. 19, ii. 1. 8-9, as interpolations: but they may very well be © 


justified on the analogy of Thuc. ii. 28, iii. 87, 92, etc., and indeed, since 


, the Sicilian Greeks and the Persians had begun actively to interfere, 


they may be regarded as necessary t to the understanding of the course of 
the war. 


§ 1. "OAupmads. See Introd. § 2. on Xenophon’s chronology. 

mpooreleioa Evvwpls. Pausanias (v. 8. 3) relates, that the two- 
horse chariot race was first added in the 93rd Olympiad, i.e. 408 B.C. or 
two years. later than this date on Breitenbach’s calculation, or one year 
on Bruckner’s. 

@opixédv. On the S.E. coast of Attica. 

@pacvAAos supr. 1. 8 was sent to obtain reinforcements for the 
Hellespont, but now, for some unexplained reason, he takes his new fleet 


7 


IT. 


Boox I. 


HELLENICA. 


to Ionia. Probably the Athenians were already completely masters of 
the Hellespont, and so could afford to use their forces elsewhere. 

&s Gua kal, «.7.A.: probably a gloss. Peter translates the words, © 
‘together with those who were to serve as peltasts’; but anyhow ws is out 
of place. 

§ 2. IIvyeAa. A small town five miles S.W. of Ephesus. 

§ 4. eis Nérvov. The harbour of Colophon, N.W. of Ephesus. 

- d&kpdfovros rod ofrov, ‘when the corn was ripening,’ i.e. about 
June. 

§ 5. Zréyyns. Thucydides (viii. 16) calls him érapyos Ticaagépvous. 

§ 6. rq "Aprépid.. The famous temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 

§ 7. Kopyocéy, a hill four and a-half miles S.W. of Ephesus. 

§ 8. odlow can hardly be right. Sauppe conjectures ’Egécror. 

§ 9. ds ef éxarov, ‘about a hundred.’ 

§ 12. atrois dvdpdon, ‘ crews and all.’ 

§ 13. adméAucev, ‘he let go free,’ is a correction of Dindorf for the 
MS. «aréAevoev. The sense evidently requires some such change in the 
text, as it can scarcely be true that Thrasyllus ‘stoned to death’ the 
cousin of his own friend Alcibiades. Others conjecture «aréAvoey or 
xatnArénoe. 

§ 15. dvres ... Heovev: two different constructions are here used 
after ds. 

§ 16. ’AAxiBidSns as the commander-in-chief alone is mentioned, - 
though it appears from Plut. Alc. 29 that Thrasyllus also took 
part. 

§ 18. Kopuvddorov. Xenophon here gives rather a one-sided version 
of the recapture of Coryphasium or Pylos on the Messenian coast by the 
Spartans, which the Athenians had held ever since it was seized by their 
general Demosthenes in 425 B.C. Diodorus (xiii. 64) says that the place 
was at this time garrisoned by some Messenians, and when they were 
attacked by the Spartans, the Athenians sent a fleet of thirty vessels 
under Anytus to raise the siege. Anytus, however, was unable to 
weather Cape Malea, and therefore returned to Athens; whereupon 
the Messenians shortly after surrendered. Xenophon omits altogether 


" to notice the important recapture of Nisaea by the Megarians about the 


same time (Diod. xiii. 65). 
vous érrolkovs. It appears from Thuc. iii. 92, viii. 3 that when the 

Spartans in 426 B.C. settled 6000 colonists at Heraclea, they refused to 
allow any Achaeans to join in the settlement: and that in 413 B.C. 
king Agis had extorted money and demanded hostages of the Achaeans 
of Phthia. 

§ 19. nat 6 gvaurés, «.7.A. Dindorf prints this section in brackets 
for the same reasons as supr. I. 37. 

8 


NOTES. CH. Il, § 2—CH. III, § 20. 


” 


§ 1. wavtt TS orparoméddy, i.e. the united forces of Alcibiades and Boox I. 


Thrasyllus, who had wintered at Lampsacus, supr. 2. 15. 

§ 2. KaAxndova rai ee now in possession of the Lace- 
daemonians (cf. supr. I. 35). 

§ 4. alozets memotnpévos, i.e. mpds Tovs Bibuy ys. 

§ 6. "Adnipidons. econdinn to Plutarch’s account, Alcibiades had 
been previously engaged i in repelling Pharnabazus’ attack on the outside 
of the Athenian siege works. 

§ 7. orevotroplav. The narrow passage in between the river and the 
Athenian lines. 

§ 8. of Sé Aourot orparnyol. Thrasyllus and Theramenes (cf. Diod. 
xiii. 66). 

§ 9. tTOv hépov ... Scoviep eidPerav. There is no evidence to show 
whether this ¢épos was the e/xoorf or five per cent. duty on all imports 


and exports, for which the Athenians in 413 B.c. commuted the tribute — 


originally assessed by Aristides (Thuc. vii. 28); or whether in the interval 
they had returned to the old system. ) 

§ 13. Tacvwrridas was exiled (i. 1. 32) on suspicion of treachery at 
Thasos. In the interval therefore hé must have been recalled. These 
Spartan envoys, who were evidently sent to counteract the influence of 
the Athenian envoys, are not to be confused with those who (infr. 4. 2) 
met Pharnabazus at Gordium with the news of Cyrus’ appointment to be 
satrap of Sardis. 

45y pevyov (supr. I. 27-32). "Xenophon apparently inserts these 
words to denote that Hermocrates was not with the envoys as com- 
missioned by the Syracusan government, but hoping to gain, as he 
actually did, some aid for the expedition which he was preparing against 
his country. 

§ 15. KAéapxos: cf. i. 1. 35. 

veoSap.wSav. The name given to newly manumitted Helots:-what 
their privileges were, cannot be ascertained (cf. Thue. iv. 26, 80, vii. 58). 

§ 17. GAAat. There seems to be no need to change the MS. reading 
to GAAa dAAn. The construction dAAa—«al—«ai—xat daws dAdrat is 
somewhat irregular, but the meaning is plain. 


émBarnys ordinarily means either a marine or a private passenger. 


There is no evidence to show that it wasa title of an inferior naval officer | 


(cf. Thuc. viii. 61). 
§ 18. of mpodSévres. An anacoluthon: the nominative has no verb. 
The interrupted sentence is taken up again at § 23 with éwe? 5é. 
§ 19. torepov. Byzantium surrendered a second time to the Lace- 
daemonians in the autumn of 405 B.C. (cf. ii. 2. 1). 
d&mépuyev. Pregnant meaning, ‘ got off by saying. 
§ 20. dvolEavres. Diodorus (xiii. 66) and Plutarch (Alcib. 31) give 


9 


—¢——— 


IIT. 


HELLENICA. 


BooK I. a much fuller and somewhat different account of the capture of Byzan- 
—+—  tium, detailing an elaborate stratagem of Alcibiades, and speaking of 


IT. 
IV. 


a hard-fought battle within the town. 


§ 2. of re AaxeSapoviwv. Although Xenophon introduces these 
envoys with the article of, as if already mentioned, they evidently cannot 
be the same as those mentioned in ch. 3. 13 as journeying to Persia. 
Probably therefore they had been despatched previously by the -Spar- 
tans to procure the dismissal of Tissaphernes from Sardis. 

mévrov Ov by attraction for ravra ay. . 

§ 3. wavrwv trav él OaAdrrp. In the Anabasis (i. 9. 7) Xenophon 
describes Cyrus more exactly as ocarpdans Avdias re wal Spvylas rijs 
peydAns xat Karradoxlas, orparnyds 32 wal wdvrow ... ols xadjre eis 


- Kaorodot rediov d6poi(ecba. 


kdpavov. Doric for «dpnvos, ‘ chief.’ Segaar however considers it 
to be a Persian word, to account apparently for Xenophon’s explanation 
of the term. 

§ 5. pr eBSévar. For the success of this measure cf. note on § 8. 

§ 6. pépyyras, sc. 6 Kupos. Some commentators have needlessly 
conjectured pémpowro, sc. of mpecBeis; for Pharnabazus aimed not so 
much to avoid the remonstrances of the envoys, as the displeasure. of 
Cyrus. 

§ 7. évavroi tpets, i.e. they returned to Athens in the spring of 
405 B.C. just before the battle of Aegospotami. 

ot wapd BactAéa. Some word like dvaydyo: must be supplied 
from dwaéfev immediately preceding. 

§ 8. BovAdpevos, «.7.A. Cyrus’ measures to prevent the news of his 
own arrival, and of the intention of the Persian king to aid the Lace- 
daemonians from reaching the Athenians, must have proved successful. 
Otherwise it is hard to believe that Alcibiades would have chosen this 
moment to return to Athens; whereas, supposing him to have been in 
ignorance, no moment could have seemed more propitious. He had 
restored the Athenian dominion over the Bosporus, Propontis, and 
Hellespont, had concluded a favourable treaty with Pharnabazus, and 
had sent an embassy to the Persian king in the hope of bringing him 
over to the side of Athens. 

§ 9. OpacvBovdAos here reappears in Xenophon’s narrative, nothing 
having been said of him since the battle of Cyzicus in 410 B.C.; cf. supr. 
note on I. 32. From this passage it would seem that the Lacedaemo- 
nian party had once more gained the upper hand in the island. 

§ 10. orparnyovs efAovro. It is not to be supposed that only three 
generals were elected instead of the usual ten. Xenophon probably 
names the three who were to command the fleet. - 

10 


= an we 


ae 


NOTES. CH. IV, § 2—§ 16. 


devyovra, Thucydides (viii. 95) says thatthe people 颥y¢icavro kai 
"Are Biddny ...-katiévat in the year 411 B.C., but Alcibiades had never 
_ availed himself of the permission, so that perhaps now the decree may 
have ‘been renewed. The curse pronounced over him by the priestly 
family of the Eumolpidae was certainly not recalled till his return in 
408 B.C. 

§ 11. ['vOelov. On the southern Laconian coast. 

7o0 ... xardtAov.. The genitive may be made to depend on 
naracKowty, or be regarded as a sort of partitive genitive dependent on 
Saws. The meaning is the same in either case. 

§ 12. TPnHévous, ‘sc. rods modiras, from the preceding wdArs. 
uvripia. The washing of the statue of the goddess took place 
’ on the 25th of Thargelion, i.e. about June 12; cf. Mommsen, Heorto- 
logie. 

avemurndecov. So Plutarch, Alcib. 34 S0ev éy rais padiora To 
droppdiov tiv yépay tavtny dxpaxroy "AOnvaio: vopifovaw" ob ¢ido- 
ppdvas obv ob5 eipeviis 2dénen mpocdexopévn tov "AAKiBiadnv H Oeds 
napaxadvmrecOa kal dredatvew éaurijs. 

§ 13. dxAos .. . OaupdfLovres, a construction xaTa avveow. 
~ ot pév corresponds to of 3é § 17. 


p-dvos, i.e. alone of those who had been banished at the same time. - 


dmeAoytOy Os. Dindorf incloses the words in brackets as a gloss: 
dreXoyhOn is used passively. 

amd rod rijs wéAcws Suvarod.: ‘from the resources of the state’ ; 
cf. i. 6. 7 xara 76 abrod buvaréy, 

§ 14. brepBaddpevor, MSS. iwepBadXdpevor, literally ‘ having put off 
that which seemed to be just to another time’; i.e. the demand for an 
‘immediate trial, which seemed to be just. 

éotépyaav. The oratio recta is somewhat irregular, but is due to 
the length of the sentence. 

§ 15. SovAevwv is appropriate as expressing the relation between 
Alcibiades as a subject, and the Persian king as a master. 

§ 16. etvar. Dindorf inserts efva: from one MS. Itisa contracted 
expression for 7@v ro.ovrow oldomep abrds Fv dvrow elva, ‘they denied 
that it was the part of men who were such as he was, to need, etc.’ 

ofovomep mporepov, x.7.A. The words, as they stand in the text, are 
a correction, almost universally adopted, of the unintelligible MSS. 
Totovros ofos. But even so corrected it is very hard to extract any 
meaning out of them. rots ... éx@pots is the dat. depending on iadpyew, 
and oloonep is the dat. instead of the nom. by attraction after rocovrors : 
the sequence of cases Suvac@eiow ...AadOévras is very irregular. Per- 
haps therefore the passage might be rendered: ‘they said that nothing 
was left to his enemies except to appear to be what they had been before 

II 


Boox I. 





HELLENICA. 


(i.e. to try to appear to-be as powerful as they really had been in the 
oligarchy of 411 B.C.), and afterwards, when they should really have 
gained power, to make away with the best citizens, and thus being 
themselves alone left remaining, to be courted by their fellow-citizens 
for the very reason that they would have no better men to employ.’ 

§ 17. Tav Te doBepav, Kk...  yevéoGar is the infinitive dependent on 
goBepoy, Translate: ‘and that there was a danger that he alone wou’ 
be the author of the evils that it was feared would befall the state’ 
poBepayv ... yevécOar = poBepay pr yévnra. 

§ 19. Join wapeoxevacpévev pi} émrpémecv. 

§ 20. avroxpdtwp. For a parallel cf. Thuc. vi. 8, when Nicias, 
Alcibiades, and Lamachus were appointed orparnyot abroxpdaropes. 

o@oat, i.e. to secure what remained and to recover what | was lost 
of the Athenian power. 

arporepov pév. For the first time since the émrefytois was estab- 
lished at Decelea, Alcibiades now conducted the procession to Eleusis, 
as of old, along the Sacred Way. He evidently meant it to be not only 
a military demonstration, but an act of atonement to the priestly party, 
whose hatred he had so deeply incurred (cf. Thuc, viii. 53). Plutarch 
indeed says that he roused such enthusiasm among the common people, 
that they hoped that he would make himself tyrant (cf. Thuc. vi. 15). 

§ 21. tplrp pyvi. The Eleusinian mysteries were celebrated on the 
20th of Boedromion, i.e. Oct. 4: the Plynteria on the 25th of Tharge- 
lion, i.e. June 12. Alcibiades therefore must have stayed at Athens 
within a week of four months. 


renpévor kard yijy, i.e. Alcibiades selected them out of the college 


of generals to command the troops on board his fleet. Diodorus (xiii. 


72) erroneously mentions Adimantus and Thrasybulus. For the latter — 


was still absent from Athens (cf. Hell. i. 4. 9, 5.11). It appears from 
i. 4. 22, 5. 18 that Conon must have accompanied Alcibiades as 
second commander of the fleet, as he was left by him to carry on the 
siege of Andros. 

§. 22. ris ’Avdplas xopas. This failure to capture Andros was made 
a matter of reproach against Alcibiades by his enemies at Athens (Plut. 


Alc. 35). 


§ 23. éroAgye. Diodorus and Plutarch state that Alcibiades made 
plundering expeditions to Caria, Cos, and Rhodes, apparently in the 
winter 408-407 B.C. 


§ I. mpétepov tovrwv,.i.e. a little before Alcibiades sailed for-An- 
dros and Samos, in the autumn of 408 B.C. Xenophon now proceeds 
to bring his account of the doings in the enemy’s camp up to the same 
date. 

12 


y a 





a Gi. 


NOTES. CH. IV, § 17—CH. V, § t. 


fis vavapx(as. The origin of the admiralty at Sparta, like that of Boox I. 
other Lacedaemonian institutions, is shrouded in some obscurity. Hero- | _,.— 
dotus (jii. 56) speaks of a Spartan naval expedition undertaken against Vv. 
Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, about 525 B.C., but does not mention who 
was the commander. He does however apply the title of vavapxos to 
Eurybiades at the battle of Salamis (viii. 42), but he calls king Leoty- 
chides, who commanded the Greek fleet at Mycale in 479 B.C. orparnyés 
kal vavapxos (viii. 131), showing that at that date the office was not 
permanently separated from the kingship. From this time, with the 
doubtful exceptions of the regent Pausanias and Dorcis (Thuc. i. 95), we 
hear nothing of the admiralty till the time of the Peloponnesian War, 
after the outbreak of which till its close a tolerably complete list of 
admirals can be made out all the time that the Spartans maintained a 
fleet at sea. The list begins with Cnemus 430-429 B.C. (Thuc. ii. 66, 80, 
93), who seems, like the other Spartan magistrates, to have entered on his 
office in September. Alcidas succeeded after a year’s interval, 428-427 
(Thuc. iii. 16, 26), and then after another year’s interval, Thrasymelidas, 
426-425 (Thue. iv, 11). In 425 the Spartans lost their entire fleet at 
Pylos, and built no more ships until after the Athenian disaster at 
Syracuse. In 413-412 Melancridas was admiral of the newly built 
fleet.: he was followed in the two next years by Astyochus (Thuc. viii. 
20) and Mindarus (Thuc. viii. 85), who perished at the battle of Cyzicus 
in the spring of 410 B.c. It is doubtful whether Pasippidas, who was 
commissioned to collect together what ships he could (Xen. i. 1. 32) was 
actually admiral or not, and it is doubtful again, when the titular 
admiral Cratesippidas took command over the ships that he had thus 
collected, although Xenophon narrates the fact as occurring apparently 
in the campaign of 411-410.' At any rate Cratesippidas was not suc- 
ceeded by Lysander till the autumn of 408 (Xen. i. 5.1). At the end 
of his year of office Lysander was followed by Callicratidas, who was 
drowned at the battle of Arginusae in 406 B.c. (c. June). After an 
interval of some months the fleet: was handed over to Lysander as 
émoroAebs or second in command, the nominal admiral being Aracus. 
Then there is 4 gap of one year in our information, during which 
Lysander was again actual commander of the fleet, whoever may have 
been the titular admiral, and for the following year (404-403) Libys, the 
brother of Lysander, was appointed to be admiral. 

As to the powers of the office Aristotle (Pol. ii. 9. 33) calls it cxe8dy 
érépa BaoiAcia—a criticism which: seems, however, to be true only of 
Lysander, and possibly of Teleutias, the brother of king Agesilaus 
(392-391 B.C.); and which seems tacitly to refer to Aristotle’s previous 
definition of the kingship as merely a orparnyia dia Biov. In this respect 
the admiral was indeed another king, having a power independent of 


13 


HELILENICA. 


Book I. and parallel with that of the two ordinary kings. But in another respect 
——++— his position was far inferior and more precarious: for the office was, as 


V. 


a general rule (the case of Cratesippidas, who was sent out.to command 
whatever ships he could find, being apparently an exception), an 
annual one —at least so it would appear from the list of admirals that 
can be made out with tolerable certainty so long as the Spartans main- 
tained a fleet at sea—and moreover the same individual could not legally 
hold it twice (Xen. ii.1. 7). In the case of Lysander indeed the ephors 
discovered an easy evasion of the law, by appointing him for two 
years émoroAevs or second in command to a merely nominal admiral: 
and it was while holding this subordinate position that Lysander attained 
to his greatest power, and acted like a sovereign prince in the 
Aegean. Thus at the siege of Athens (405-404) he appears as com- 
mander of the fleet quite on an equality with the kings Agis and Pausa- 
nias in command of the army, and further to have the advantage over 
them in that his action was not hampered by the presence of a colleague. 
Again, when any admiral had proved himself inefficient or untrust- 
worthy, the Spartan government preferred, as they did with the kings, 
rather to send out oiuBovAo: to advise him than simply to deprive him of 
his office (cf. Thuc. vi. 85, viii. 39), unless this was absolutely necessary. 

The office of the émaroAevs or second in command has already been 
referred to in the case of Lysander. But in ordinary cases the secretary 
was appointed , as Pollux (i. 96) declares, to be simply 6 émi rot oréAou 
8:d8oxos Tod vavdpyov, Thus after the death of Mindarus, his secretary 
Hippocrates took the command of the fleet (Thuc. i. 1, 23), and the 
admiral Callicratidas left his secretary Eteonicus at the head of the 
squadron blockading Conon at Mytilene, while he himself sailed to meet 
the Athenians at Arginusae, and after his death his place was filled by 
Eteonicus until the arrival of a definitely appointed successor. 

As to the method of election to the admiralship nothing at all is 
known, though it is plain that the post must have been regarded as of 
great significance in the struggle of political parties at Sparta. Thus 
the choice of Lysander three times to command the fleet, once as 
admiral and twice as secretary, followed by the choice of his brother 
Libys and later of his friend Anaxibius, points to the supremacy of his 
party in the home government, and similarly the appointment of his 
opponent Callicratidas in the autumn of 407 must mean a temporary 
check to his policy, though but few details can be made out from the 
confused and unchronological account of Plutarch. 

é{BSophcovra. This was the first fleet the Spartans had collected 
since the battle of Cyzicus, 410 B.C, (sup. I. 18). 

es Zapbes : from Gordium in Phrygia Minor (sup. 4. 3), where he 
had been in the spring of 408. 


14 


NOTES. CH. V,§ 12—§ 16. 


§ 2. rots éx AaxeSalpovos mpéoBeow: these must be the same asin 4.2. Boox I. 

§ 5. tds cuvOiKas (cf. Thuc. viii. 29, 45, 58). One mina = Ioo drach- 54 
mae = 600 obols, or three obols a day for every sailor in a crew of 200. Vv 

§ 9. tm’ "AA Bidbou (cf. Thuc. viii. 46). : 

pyde ofrives = undéves ofrivés elot: ‘none of the Greeks whatever.’ 

§ 11. Cf. Introd. § 2 on Xenophon’s chronology for the reasons for 
putting the beginning of the new year at this point. 

@pacviPovAov. Xenophon does not relate how Thrasybulus sailed 
from Thrace and Thasos (supr. 4. 9), nor why he was now fortifying 
_ Phocaea. This town was occupied by the Spartan admiral Astyochus 
412 B.C. (cf. Thue. viii. 31), and after Arginusae, 406 B.C., the Pelopon- 
nesians fled to it for refuge. But, like Cyzicus, it may have been un- 
walled, and so liable to occupation by either side, so that there is no 
_ meed to change rexieyv into émretxi{ev. Diodorus (xiii. 73) has a 
different story altogether, that Alcibiades sailed not to Phocaea, but to 
Clazomenae. 

*Avrloxoy. Plutarch (Alc. 36) calls him an experienced seaman, but 
rash and inconsiderate. In ch. 10 he relates a story of the manner in 
which, as a boy, he gained the friendship of Alcibiades. 

§ 13. ds Exacros fvoigev: ‘as each got clear of land.’ 

§ 15. AeAdivov wat “Hidva. Delphinium was in Chios. Diodorus 
(xiii. 76) ascribes the capture of Delphinium and Teos not to Lysander, 
but to Callicratidas, and therefore to the year 406 B.C. Hence some 
commentators have proposed to read Téwy or Taiovs instead of 
*"Hidva, : j 

§'16. HyyéAOy. Plutarch (Alc. 36) makes a certain Thrasybulus, son 
of Thraso [to be distinguished from the famous Thrasybulus], return to 
Athens immediately after the battle, and there formally impeach Al- 
cibiades for general misconduct. Diodorus (xiii. 73, 74) here again gives 
quite a different account: the general discontent at Athens was, accord- 
ing to him, increased by the accusations of some Cymaean envoys, who , 
complained that, after the battle of Notium, Alcibiades had made a 
descent upon Cyme and ravaged its land, notwithstanding that it was 
an allied state. But something must be wrong in Diodorus’ account, 
because Thucydides (viii. 31, 100) distinctly states that Cyme was on the 
Peloponnesian side. Nepos (Alc. 7) has yet another version, that 
Alcibiades was accused at Athens, not for the defeat at Notium, which 
he does not mention, but for his failure in an attempt upon Cyme. 

GA\Aous Séka. Since the battle of Notium must have taken place 
in the spring of 407, and elections were held at Athens about May 1, 
it would seem that Xenophon must mean, not an extraordinary election 
of generals to replace Alcibiades, but the ordinary elections for the 
year 407-406, at which Alcibiades failed to secure re-election. Other- 

35 





Book I. 


HELLENICA. 


wise we should expect to hear not of ten, but only of two or three new 
generals appointed to a him in command of the fleet. Cf. 
Introd. p. 32. 

§ 17. ta éavrod (Diod. xiii. "4, Plut. Alc. 36): a castle named 
Pactyes near the Thracian town of Bysanthe on the Propontis. 

§ 18. rijs “AvSpov, where apparently he had been left by Alcibiades 
(i. 4. 23). 

PavooVevy: since the name of Phanosthenes does not occur in the 
list of the new generals, it would seem that he was one of the generals 
of the preceding year, and that he was sent to replace Conon at Andros 
in the interval which elapsed between the election of the new generals 
in May, and their entering office in July. 

§ 19. Awpréa: cf. i. 1. 2, Thuc. viii. 35, 84. 

é& “A@nvav. Rhodes was one of the subject allies of Athens, and 
therefore under her jurisdiction. 

map’ avrots, i.e. at Thurii. 

éAeqoavtes, because of the fame he had won as an Olympic victor. 
Cf. Thue. iii. 8. 

§ 20. €BSopqKxovra. Plutarch (Lys. 4) speaks of the impoverishment 
of Athens at this juncture. 


§ 1. 4 oeAvy, «.7.A. On the chronological data see Introd. p. 20 sqq. 
This eclipse occurred on April 15, 406 B.C. 

& tadatéds, x.7.A. Probably the temple of Athena Polias on the 
Acropolis, called ‘ old’ in opposition to the newer Parthenon. 

§ 4. rav AvodvSpou dfAwv. Diodorus (xiii. 70) states that Lysander 
during his period of office organized the various oligarchical clubs in 
the Ionian states in his own favour, promising them the eee of 
their cities (cf. ii. 2. 2). 

dvemiTynSelov. Translate: ‘since often unsuitable men were ap- 
pointed, who had only just studied naval matters, and did not know 
how to employ men.’ Dindorf corrects the MS. reading to dvr’ émrn- 
deiwy yevouévov, and omits ob before yryvwoxdyrov,—changes, which 
certainly give an easier meaning, but there seems to be no absolute neces- 
sity to change the text. . Beg 

§ 5. mpos & éye re, x.7.A.: ‘in relation to those measures for which 
I am myself ambitious, and our country is accused, etc.’ 

§ 8. wépas tpcfpes. Xenophon nowhere relates the result of their 
mission. 

§ 11. éxetva: the money from Lacedaemon. 

Gaupafev: a stronger word than Oepanevecy, 

§ 12. of alnafopevor évavriotofar: ‘those who were accused of 

opposing him,’ 
16 


a de 








NOTES. CH. V, § 17—CH. VI, § 29. 


émayyeAAdpevou, sc. Sodva:: ‘ promising themselves to give money Book I. 


from their private means.’ 
_ €oStacdpevos «.7.A.: ‘having had his seamen paid five drachmae 
apiece.’ 

§ 13. TOV Ta Tpdypata éxévrwv: ‘ those who were in power.’ 

§ 15. rous S¢ trav “AOnvalwv dpovpovs. Grote (vii. 406) overlooks the 
fact that Callicratidas allowed the Athenians to be sold. 

; poxavra. Plutarch (‘non posse suaviter,’ etc., xviii. 6) explains : 
aloxpas nal Kpupa meipay nat mapaBid(ecOa rv OdAarray. 

§ 16. eis 6Alyas: cf. supr. 5. 20. | 

éxarév Kal éBSopyxovra : the thirty Athenian ships captured’§ 17 
seem to be reckoned by ahticipation: for according to § 3 and Diod. 
xiii, 76 the number was now 140. \ 

§ 17. kataxwAvieds, i.e. prevented from beaching his ships under the 
city walls. 

§ 19. kolAnv vaiv: ‘the ship’s hold.’ 

Ta wapapptpara: what particular kind: of coverings these were, is 
unknown. Apparently the crews remained below during the day-time 
to escape the notice of the enemy, and to fit out the ships. They had 
to wait five days before they caught the Peloponnesians off their 
guard. 

§ 20. as ...‘eivar: ds is here used with the infinitive, like dare. 

§ 21. ds Exacrot fivoryov: ‘as they severally got clear of land.’ This 
seems a simpler rendering than to take ws, as Peter does, as qualifying 
éxaoro: only, and re as copulative, fvoryov ... €BonGovry, The logical 
order of ideas appears to be somewhat confused in the phrases d-y«vpas 
dnoxémrovres .. . éyerpdpevor... eloBayres. 

The detail with which Xenophon narrates this incident of persons 
skill and courage is noticeable. 

§ 22. AvopéSwv. Xenophon does not say where he was coming 
from: from the context it would appear that it was not from Athens. 

§ 24. SovAous. To enrol slaves, even as rowers in the fleet, was a 
very exceptional measure. These slaves who fought at Arginusae were 
‘rewarded with their freedom, and were given allotments of land together 
with the same political privileges as the Plataeans enjoyed at Athens (cf. 
Arist. Frogs 190, 693; Miiller, Fr. Hist. Gr. i. 56, 80). 

rTav trméwv: the knights formed the second of Solon’s five classes 
and were usually exempt from naval service (cf. Thuc. iii. 16). 

§ 27. év tats “Apyivovcats: three small islands between Lesbos and 
the mainland. 

§ 28. dvécyev, sc. 6 yeumy, ‘ when the storm ceased.’ 

§ 29. “EpaowviSys. Xenophon nowhere relates how he escaped from 


Mytilene, in which, according to § 16, he was blockaded together with 


B 17 


——¢o——- 


VI. 


Boox II. 


HELLENICA., 


§ 24. émavhyovro: imperfect, to express that the Athenians also did 


—++— so for four days. 


I. 


§ 25. "AA Bradys: last mentioned as sailing to these forts, i. 5. 17. 
According to Diodorus (xiii. 105) he now demanded a share in the com- 
mand of the fleet. , Lysias (xiv. 38) actually accuses Alcibiades of having 
betrayed, in conjunction with Adimantus, the Athenians at Aegospotami 
in revenge for this repulse. But, if Xenophon’s account of the circum- ~ 
stances be correct, any treachery on his part seems to have been quite 
impossible, and in the following year it was Adimantus and his party 
who contrived the assassination of Alcibiades. 

§ 26. atrol...éxetvov: for this the regular consfruction of nominative 
and accusative in oratio obliqua cf. ii. 3. 17, Thuc. iv. 28. . 

§ 27. tots map’ abrod éropévors, i.e. those who had been ordered by 
him to follow the Athenian movements, supr. § 24. 

§ 28. rév éwimAouv. Diodorus (xiii. 106) gives a totally different ac- 
count of the battle, making the Athenians, led by Philocles, take the 
offensive. 

S(kporor, i.e. with only two out of the three tiers of oars manned. 

TIdpados: this and the SaXasuvia were sacred vessels used by the 
Athenians for religious missions, for conveying ambassadors, and for 
carrying the commands of the home government to the generals: ef. 
infra vi. 2.143 Thuc. vi. 53; viii. 86. 

ovvénegev: cf. supr. Biecxedacpévay tov dvOpumav, 

eis tad trexvdpia, i.e. of Sestos. Xenophon omits to relate its 
capture. Diodorus (l.c.) puts the event immediately after the battle. 

§ 29. ta peydda ... toria. Lysander must have left them behind 
to lighten his ships for rowing; cf. i. 1.13. Xenophon says nothing 


.more about Conon till just before his great victory over the Lace- 


daemonians at Cnidus in 394 B.C.; cf. iii. 4. 1. 

§ 30. Tous aixpaddrous : according to Plutarch (Lys. 11) 3000 in 
number. 

§ 31. Tv Seftdv xeipa. So Plutarch (Lys. 9), Philocles érace ynpi- 
cacbqa: Tov Sjjpov dnoxérreyv tov BSefidv dvtixepa Tav AdcoKopévr, 
Saas Sépu pev pepe pr) Sivevra, kumnv 8 édavvwat. 

§ 32. qrid0y .. . pévrot, i.e. in contradiction to the pretended reason 
for sparing his life. The evidence against Adimantus is very doubtful. 
Lysias (xiv. 38) speaks of Alcibiades rds vats Avodydpy pera ’Adepavrov 
mpodovvat, where he is certainly misrepresenting much of Alcibiades’ 
conduct. Indeed, in another speech (ii. 58), he regards the cause of the 
disaster as doubtful, «fre Hyeudvos xaxiq etre Oe@v Savoig. Pausanias 
(iv. 17, x. 9) preserves the Athenian tradition, that Adimantus and 
Tydeus were the traitors, the latter being the bitterest opponent of 
Alcibiades. Isocrates (v. 62) expresses no decided opinion. The ac- 


24 











NOTES. CH. I, § 24—CH. I, § 6. 


cusation of treachery brought by Conon against Adimantus (mentioned Book II. 
by Demosthenes xix. 191) belongs to a much later date, c. 393, after the —+»— 
amnesty of 403. In the midst of such uncertain evidence it is impossible to L. 
form a definite opinion either way, especially as accusations of treachery 

to account for so irretrievable a disaster would lie so ready to hand. 

nmapavopeiv. The MS. D has interpolated in it after wapayopety 
—vuhoas épn mole & wabeiy epedArAes HrrnOcis, evOds ToUTOY dxéogpafe 
peta Ti GAAwv orparnyav, which exactly agrees with the story of his 
answer given by Plutarch (Lys. 13). 

§ 1. KaAxySéva. This city was, by the treaty with Pharnabazusin II. 
409 B.C., left in the hands of the Lacedaemonians, and must therefore 
at some time since have been taken by the Athenians. 

ot &¢ mpodévres: cf. i. 3. 18. 

vére: before the surrender of Athens. 

vorepov: after the restoration of the democracy in 403 B.C. 

§ 2. eidds tt... Eoeofar. The construction is altered owing to the . 
intermediate clause S0@ ... Tletpar&: cf. iii. 4. 27. 

Sow wAelous: the correlative rocovrm is wanting before Qarrov : 
cf. iv. 2. II. 

Bufavriov, «.7.A. As masters of the Bosporus, the Lacedae- 
monians could now prevent the passage of all corn ships on their way 
to Athens; cf. i. 1. 35; ii. I. 17. 

ipicoxiy: It appears from Diodorus (xiv. 13) and Plutarch (Lys. 
13) that Lysander now established, in connection with the oligarchical 
clubs that he had previously organized in Asia Minor and the Aegean, 
a system of decarchies or councils of ten men in every subject state, 
to replace the democracies, and to support the Spartan harmost or 
governor, and his garrison ; cf. note on i. 5. 8. 

§ 3. 6 trepos 7 érép: in partitive apposition to the nominative, as 
if gpm {ow had preceded: the genitive absolute would have been more 
regular. 

MyAlous: cf. Thuc. v. 116. 

‘Toratéag: cf. Thuc. i. 114. 

Zxvovalous kai Topwvatous: cf. Thuc. v. 3, 32. 

Aiywiyras : ef. Thue. i. 108, ii. 27. 

§ 5. ets AéoBov. The Athenians had held this island, with the 
exception of Methymna, since they had recovered it after its revolt in 
412 B.C. (Thuc. viii. 23). 

Karecxevdoaro. For the system introduced cf. note on § 2. The 
same is meant infra by mpds AaxeSaupovious peréarncer. 

§ 6. Tv yvwplpwv, i.e. the oligarchs, who often too called themselves 
xadol xé-yaGoi. For the conduct of the Samian democrats cf. Thuc. viii. 21. 


a5 


Book II. 


—~+—— 


IT. 


HELLENICA, 


.§ 7. wiv ’Apyelwv, who had concluded an alliance with Athens in 
420 B.C, (Thue. v. 47), to which they seem now to have been faithful. 

§ 8. +O kadoupévp yupvacty: evidently a gloss. 

§ 9. wAclorous atr&v dpolcas: most of them had settled at Thyrea, 
on the south border of the Argolis; cf. Thuc. ii. 27. 

Tis atrav, sc. tarplios. 
va mAota: the corn ships. 

§ 10. évépifov 8é, «.7.A. This is one of the chief passages on which 
the theory of Xenophon’s philo-Laconism in Hellenics I, II has been 
based. But when compared with the impartiality of the rest of the 
books, it may very well be that Xenophon is merely chronicling what 
were actually the feelings of the Athenians at the time. 

éxe(vois: the Lacedaemonians. 

§ 11. rovs dtipovs. The proposal was made by Patroclides (Andoc. 
i. 73). It did not apply to the exiles (cf. infr. § 20), but only to those 
who had been in any measure disfranchised for the part they had played 
in the oligarchical revolution of the Four Hundred in 411 B.c.; cf. 
Introd. p. 35. 

Tap’ *Ayvw. Lysander had already crossed with part of his fleet 
to Asia in order to lay siege to Samos; cf. infr. § 16. 

§ 12. ob ydp elvat xuptos: for the almost supreme power of Agis, 
when he was at Decelea, cf. Thuc. viii. 4, 71. 

§ 13. 2eAAac(a: the frontier town of Lacedaemon. 

avr éGev : temporal, ‘at once,’ ‘ on the spot.’ . 
§ 15. THs Kadaipécews. This shows that the Athenian envoys were 


' not simply dismissed by the Spartans, but had definite terms proposed 


to them, on which a peace could be concluded. 

TOV pakp@v rexdv... éxarépov. There were two long walls 
joining Athens and Piraeus, and one joining Athens and Phalerum ; 
éxarépov must therefore mean each of the two outer walls. 


éyévero St Wihdiopa. This was the work of the demagogue Cleo- © 


phon; cf. Lysias xiii. 11. 
— $16. Torovrwv 52 Svrwv. roovraw is the predicate, the participle 
having no subject, as supr. i. 2. 26. 

aapa paar now engaged in the siege of Samos; cf. supr. § II. 


elSds ... AaxeSatpovious mérspov ... dvréxovor. The Greek © 


idiom often ‘pats the subject of the dependent sentence as. the direct 
object of the principal verb. 

tmlorews éveca, i.e. as a pledge that the conditions would be ob- 
served. 

tpeis pivas Kai wAéov: from December 405 to the end of March 
404 B.C. 
émrmpév Sréte=Tdv Karpov puddrray, éy @. 

26 


<A> 


NOTES. CH. I, § 7—CH. III, § 1. 


Sid rd EmAcAoirévas Tov otrov: itt seems to be impossible to Book II. 
reconcile this with the statement in § 11 that the corn supply had already —++— 
failed three months ago, before Theramenes’ mission to Lysander. TI. 

&mavra 6,7t: for the irregularity cf. Cyrop. i. 6.11 8 m7. ... ravra. 

§ 17. efra without 5é strengthens the opposition between the sen- 
tences. 

ot ydp efvar kupios: cf. the answer of Agis supr. § 12. 

1péOy . .. els AakeSalpova: els expresses motion; ‘to go to Lace- 
daemon,’ 6Séxaros adrés : ‘with nine others.’ 

§ 18. “AptororéAy: cf. ii. 3. 2,13. Afterwards he was one of the 
Thirty, and was sent by them to Sparta to obtain a Lacedaemonian 
garrison for Athens. 

§ I9. eFarpeiv, sc. rds ’AOfvas, to be supplied from ’A@nvators. 

§ 20. AaxeSaipédvion Sé: cf. Justin v. 7 ‘Negarunt Spartani se ex 
duobus Graeciae oculis alterum eruturos.’ Infr. ii. 3. 41, however, 
Theramenes attributes to them mere motives of political expediency. 

xaBévras = karedeiv épévras, ‘having allowed to return.’ Plutarch 
and Diodorus add as one of the conditions, that the Athenians were for 
_ the future to confine themselves to their own territory [Tay ye méAcwy 
wacwyv éxxwpjoa]. Plutarch (Lys. 14) professes to give the actual 
words of the treaty : wxaBBaddéyres Tov Tetpasa wal rd papa oxédAn Kal 
éxBavres tx wmacav Tov méAEwv Tay abToY yay ExovTeEs TavTA Ka Spares 
vay elpavay ~xate, al xphdorre, kai rovs ; puyadas dyevres. Tlept trav vaaw 
TO WAHGEos SKoidy th xa Thvel Bonen, Taura motéere. 

§ 23. Avoavipés re xarérAe, i.e. from Samos, which Hee was still 
besieging : he entered the city, according to Plutarch (Lys. 15), on the 
16th of Munychion, i.e. the beginning of April, 404 B.c. 

katéokatrov; ‘began to demolish.” The work was not completed 
till the autumn of this year; cf. ii. 3. I1. 

voplfovres : on the question of Xenophon’s impartiality, cf. Introd. 
pp. 14, 15, and note on supr. § Io. 

§ 24. éAdvtwv “Axpdyavra. Xenophon has already, in i. §. 21, 
narrated this same defeat of the Carthaginians and capture of Acragas as 
events of the year 407, 406. But it appears from Diodorus (xiii. 87, 92) 
that the capture did not occur till eight months after the defeat, i.e. 
December 406, and that Dionysius made himself tyrant of Syracuse 
about June 405. In this passage (é @ pecourri, i.e. autumn) it js put 
a few months later. 


§ 1. Ev&Slxov. Some MSS. read Evdiov, which Dindorf corrects to ITI. 
’Ev8iov, because an ephor of that name for the year 413 B.C. is men- 
tioned in Thuc. viii. 6. But Evdixov i is the reading of the best MS. both 
here and infra § 10. 


37 


Book II. 


———~>—— 


ITT. 


HELLENICA. 


‘dvapxlav, i.e. this year was not named, like the other years, after 
the dpywy émwyupos. 

_§ 2. ogke +rG@ Shyw. This decree was passed, on the proposal of 
Dracontides, in the autumn 404, five months after the conclusion of the 
peace, ii. 2.23. Xenophon passes over all the intervening events, viz. 
the nomination of five ephors through the agency of the oligarchical. 
clubs, the embitterment of internal dissensions, the arrest of the demo- 
cratical leaders, and the invitation sent by the oligarchs’ to Lysander, 
who was still besieging Samos, to interfere in the domestic politics of 
Athens (§ 9, in September). When he arrived in Athens, his oligarchical 
partisans easily procured the passing of the decree mentioned in the 
text through the assembly with all the usual legal forms, backed 
as they were by the threats of Lysander, on the ground that the 
Athenians had not completed the demolition of the walls within the 
time prescribed in the treaty. Of the Thirty ten were nominated by 
‘Theramenes, ten by the five ephors, and ten by. the assembly itself. 

otSe. Most had been members of the Four Hundred in 411 B.C. 
§ 3- awpds Sdpov, i.e. back to Samos. 
éx rs Aexedeias, which Agis had first occupied in the summer of 
413 B.C. 

§ 4. wept HAlov €xAeufuv: September 3. 

§ 5. dw@Aeoe. It appears from Diodorus (xiii. 109-113) that Dio- 
nysius was never really master of these two towns, but was defeated by 
the Carthaginians in marching to the relief of Gela, and then led the 
inhabitants of Gela and Camarina back with him to Syracuse, and that 
all this happened i in the year 405 B.C. 

tad Atovuclov ... dmreoréAqoav. Diodorus relates that the 
Syracusan knights or aristocrats rebelled against Dionysius, and fled to 
Catana. Unger therefore conjectures awd Atovugiou ... dnéorngay. 
§ 7. Tats dpxaters awoAltats. Thucydides (viii. 21) relates that the 
Samian 570s had in the year 412 B.C. expelled 400 of the aristocrats. 
Séca dpxovras ... hpovpeiv, i.e. Lysander organized the govern- 
ment of Samos in the same way as he had previously done in the other 
subject states; cf. note on ii, 2.2. @poupeiy is epexegetical, Hore ppoupeiy, 
unless indeed it be a gloss. 
a&fjke, because with the surrender of Samos the reduction of the 

Athenian empire was complete; cf. ii. 2. 6. 

§ 8. eis AaxeSalpova. Diodorus (xiii: 106) and Plutarch (Lys. 16) 
give a much more detailed account of the triumphal entry of Lysander, 
with considerable exaggeration of the treasures that he brought back 
with him. 

& wepveyévovro, Contrast the conduct of Lysander, when Callicra- 

tidas succeeded him in 406, i. 6. 10. mapédege: cp. supr. 1. 14. 

28 








NOTES. CH. IIT, § a—§ 14. 


§ 9. &dpnvos kat dxrd. Thucydides (v. 26) distinctly says that the Boox IT. 
war from the Theban attack on Plataea down to the capture of Athens —+-—. 
lasted almost exactly twenty-seven years, and if to this the six months be fry. 
added down to Lysander’s return to Sparta in Sept. 404, the total number 
of years is twenty-seven and a half. Morus (Xenophon, Hellenic. p. xxiii) 
- ingeniously shows how the interpolator arrived at the mistaken total. 
For it appears from Thuc. v. 36 that the ephors entered on their office 
about the autumnal equinox. When the war began therefore, Aenesias, 
who had entered on his office in Sept. 432, had still four months of his» 
ephorate to run. Twenty-seven more names would bring us down to 
September 404. Then the interpolator adds a twenty-ninth, because 
Eudicus must have entered on his office just before Lysander returned. 

§ 11. Ot &@ rpitdxovra. Xenophon takes up the narrative where he 
left it in § 2. 

xa0ppé6y : the aorist expresses the completion of the process, the 
beginning of which several months before was expressed by the im- 
perfect carécxamroy, supr. 2. 23. 

é’ Gre ovyypaipat: for a similar use of 颒 g7e with an infinitive 
cf. iii. 5. 34 

karloryoay ds iBéxer avrots. Diodorus (xiv. 4) adds é« trav idiov 
girov ore rovrous xadreicOa piv dpyovras, elvat 8 iwnpéras rov 
Tpiaxovra. Moreover, as appears from §§ 12, 23, 28, they had trans- 
ferred all judicial powers to the BovA?. 

§ 12. wp&rov pév. Xenophon, as already mentioned, passes over 
entirely the arrest of the democratical leaders in the months before the 
nomination of the Thirty; cf. note on § 2. 

év Ti) Syporparig, i.e. in the time when the government was still 
a democracy. 

ard ovuxopavrias, i.e. by bringing quibbling accusations against 
the rich in the popular law courts. 

ouvyserav gavrois pr Svres tovodrot: for a similar constructign 
cf. ii. 4. 17. 

ovSev Hx Govro. Even Lysias (xit. 5) admits that at first the conduct 
of the Thirty had at least a show of justice about it. 

§ 13. Atoxlvyv re kai es chia two members of the Thirty ; cf. 
supr. § 2. ‘ 

: aodiot cupmpatar, x.7.A., lit. ‘that ‘Lysander would join them in 
effecting that guards should come’ ; cf. § 14 ouvémpager. 

§ 14. trav && dpovpdv. Partitive genitive with ods. 

Fkiora pev trapwPoupévous, x.7.A.: ‘would be least likely to allow 
themselves to be set aside,’ i.e. from a share in the government. 

dv: notice the unusual omission et dy with dvéyeoGa:, the first of 
the two opposed sentences, 


39 


Book II, 


—— ee 


ITI. 


HELLENICA. 


§ 15. éwel 8€: the apodosis is wanting. It is virtually taken up. at 
§ 18 with the words é« rovrov. 

&re xat gduya@v. The date and cause of his banishment are un- 
known. He was in Athens at the time of the conspiracy of the Four 
Hundred in 411 B.C., had proposed the recall of Alcibiades c. 408°B.c. 
(cf. Plut. Alc. 33), and was an exile in Thessaly during the trial of the 
ten generals in 406 B.c. (cf. infr. § 36). So that some have supposed 
that he was banished in 407, as being mixed up with the affairs of 


. Alcibiades. He came back with the other exiles after the capture of 


Athens, and was nominated .one of the five ephors; cf. Lysias xii. 78. 

§ 16. od« éyxwpoly, «.7.A.: ‘that it was impossible for those who 
aimed at extraordinary power not to put out of the way those who were 
most capable of hindering them.’ 

Somrep tupavvidos, as it stands, is out of place. Jacobs therefore 
brackets it. Hermann Proposes to read #) Honep rupavvidos, ao gives 
the sense that the passage requires. 

§ 18. of GAAow tpidxovra, although Theramenes was one of them. 
ol tpiaxovra is similarly used as a proper name in ii. 4. 21, 23, 38, 
after several of the number had been killed. 

ovZx HKtora, i.e. waAroTa. : 

Tous peOéEovras=of pePéfover. Similarly the Four Hundred, in 


_ 411 B.c., had pretended to enroll 5000 citizens from those capable of 


supplying themselves with heavy armour at their own expense; cf. infr. 
§ 48. It appears from § 51 that no member of the 3000 could be con- 
demned without the warrant of the Senate, while any other Athenian 
could be put to death simply at the orders of the Thirty. 

§ 19. BovAopévous, «.7.A. Kowwwvovs troujoacGar must be joined with 
tptoxtAlous, as appears from the order of the words. The meaning is, 
‘though wishing to take the best of the citizens into partnership, they 
had taken only three thousand.’ 

vov dprOpdv ToUrov éxovra is in the accusative absolute. 
olév te ein, as if domep ei 6 dpiOpds ovros xo. had preceded..: 
Hpas, i.e. the Thirty. 

§ 20. keAevoavtes emi td SAG: Tods rprayertous is to be supplied as 

the object of xeAevoavres, as is apparent from the following éxeivot = of 


. a Tov Kataddyov. Most commentators interpret the phrase émi rd OxAa 


as equivalent to léva: émt rd Sada, arma capere, ‘having bidden the 
three thousand to take up their arms’: but Mr. E. Abbott would trans- 
late, ‘having set them on the arms,’ i.e. having bidden them to seize the 
arms of the other citizens, while the latter were away from home, 
—an interpretation which gives the meaning that the context requires. 
Cobet (Mnemosyne vi. 47) points out that the passage must indicate 
some stratagem by which all é{w rot #ataAdyou were induced to leave 

30 


/ 








NOTES. CH. III, § 15—§ 31. 


their arms behind them, but denies that any such meaning can be ex- Boox II. 


tracted from the words as they stand: he conjectures, therefore, that. - 


several words have fallen out of the text. 
TOUS poupous : the Spartan garrison. 

§ 21. &acrov, i.e. ray rpidovra, ‘that each of the Thirty should 
seize one of the Metoeci.’ 

§ 22. AapBadvorev: the optative expresses frequency. 

§ 23. t@ wavel, adverbial, ‘in every point,’ ‘ altogether.’ 

ampos rovs BovAeuras: to whom the judicial power had been trans- 
ferred ; cf. note on § II. 

arapayevéoat : just outside the senate house; cf. § 50. 

ovuvéAefav. The Thirty summoned the Senate, and directed the 
course of procedure ; cf. Lysias xiii. 37 of wev yap rpidxovra éxaOnvro én 
Tav BaOpwyv, od viv of mpurave’’s wabélovrat. 

§ 24. wAelovas tod Katpod: ‘more than is expedient.’ 

peOordor: from the preceding words 77)y wod:reiay can be easily 
supplied. 

§ 25. rots oto fiptv re kal piv, i.e. rorovros olor Hyeis Te Kal ipeis 
éxpev. 

§ 26. Aupalverat with the dative has the same meaning as with the 

accusative, ‘to injure,’ ‘do mischief to.’ 
'  § a7. ols 8tvarat, ‘ by what means he can.’ 
as S¢ tafra dAnOy. After this one would expect papripoy to 
follow, which however is really implied in 4v katavofre, ebphoere. 
wroAéutos ev Fv, without dy, to express the certainty of the supposed 
case. 

§ 28. abr@ ...dpéoxe, an anacoluthon, just as if, not dpfas and 

&opphoas, but éwet. .. Apte.. . EEdpunoe had preceded. 
at: cf. infr. § 30 mp@ros ad hyepudv. 

§ 29. So0q@ toAepiots. Here there is no correlative comparative with 
Soy, although one is implied in the meaning: ‘men are more ready to 
trust enemies than traitors.’ Here dog may be translated ‘inasmuch as’ ; 
cf. Cyrop. vi. 2. 19. 

§ 30. kara tov waripa “Ayvova, ‘just as his father Hagnon had been.’ 
Hagnon was one of the mpéfovAo appointed immediately after the 
Sicilian disaster (Thuc. viii. 1), who according to Lysias (xii. 65) prepared 
the way for the conspiracy of the Four Hundred. 

tpomeréoratos. For the facts alluded to cf. Thuc. viii. 68, 92. 

§ 31. kat yap & xo8opvos, «.7.A. Morus and other commentators put 
this sentence in brackets as a gloss, such an explanation being quite 
superfluous before such an audience. Moreover &moBAére an’ dpdoripwv 
cannot possibly be translated in the sense required, viz. ‘fits neither 
foot.’ 


3C 


* emma Qramem 


ITI. 


Book II. 


——¢-$—— 


IIT. 


ra 


HELLENICA. 


Set... . oF. . . Seivdv efvar must be translated together. 
eis sPaypors: i.e. ‘to dangerous undertakings.’ 


ei S¢ ph, ‘ otherwise,’ more fully explained by et .  Théouv. 
§ 32. Symwou: cf. § 24. 
— aheloros ... €& 6Avyapxlas =mAcloras Trav BeAridvon and wheé- 


oro éx Bnuoxparlas = wAelorous Tov 5nyov. 
tva avrés meptow0ely: cf. Introd. p. 40, on the ‘Trial of the 
Generals,’ 
§ 33- was Sé ov, sc. xph: 
as... wovotpev ... évvorjoare: cf. note on § 27. 

§ 34. av Ew. The democrats in exile. 

§ 35. éyd 5 otk Fpxov. For how this assertion of Theramenes is 
to be reconciled with Xenophon’s narrative in i. 7. 4 cf. Introd. p. 42, 
on the Trial. 

mpoo-ray Bev por Ip’ Eaurav, accus. absolute, ‘that although orders 
had been given me by themselves, I had not rescued,’ etc. 
+ pr) Sr, elliptic phrase uy (Aéye) St, ‘much less to.’ 

_ ddoxovres yap, «.7.A. This is a direct contradiction to the generals’ 
own statement in i. 7. 6. Probably Theramenes means, that if the 
generals said that a rescue was possible, and yet in their despatch made 
no mention of any orders given to himself and other subordinate officers, 
they would themselves appear responsible for the death of the ship- 


.wrecked sailors. But the generals never said anything of the kind. 


§ 36. *rapavevopynxévar. A word is required meaning that Critias had 
misunderstood the matter. Wolf therefore conjectures wapavevonxévat, 
Cobet wapavevopuréva. 

év OerraXia. In the Mem. i. 2. 24 Xenophon adds Kpitias.. . pvyov 
els OerraXiav éxel ourfy dvOpwras avopia padAov 4 Sikatoouvy xpwpévors : 
cf. note supr. ii, 2. 15. Theramenes ridicules Critias for taking exactly 
the opposite side in Athens to what he had taken in Thessaly: for 
the Penestae, like the Helots in Lacedaemon, were ‘ adscripti glebae.’ 

§ 38. péxpt ev tod tpas, «.7.A., ‘up to your being put into the senate 
and to magistrates being appointed, and to the notorious sycophants 
being tried, so far we were all of the same opinion.’ 

Tous Spodoyoupévws oukodavtas: cf. § 12 obs mavres pbecay dnd 
ouxopavtias (wyras. For the adverb dpodoyoupeévas cf. Demosth. xxix. 14 


_ Tov dpodroyoupévas SovAoy, 


§ 39. Aéovros: for the previous history and democratical proclivities 
of Leon, cf.. Thuc. viii. 23, 55, 73, supr. i. 5. 16, vi. 16. Plato (Apol. 32) 
gives a fuller account of this incident, in which Socrates was involved, 
and showed his courage. 

Nucfov. The Athenian general at Sicily. N othing more is known 
of the son here zones 


32 


NOTES. CH. III, § 32—§ 48. 


§ 40. "Avndavros. Not to be confused with Antiphon therhetorician, Book II. 
who was executed for the part he played in the conspiracy of the Four -——, — 
Hundred. Nothing more is known of this Antiphon, unless he is to be Til 
identified with the Antiphon mentioned in Memorab. i. 6. 1. 

éva éxacrov: cf. note on § 21. 

§ 41. Ste rd Sarda, «.7.2., § 20. 

vTovrou évexa BovAopévous: cf. Diod: xv. 63, Polyaenus i. 45. 5, 
whence it appears that the Spartan reasons for sparing Athens were 
based as much on policy as on generosity ; cf. supr. ii. 2. 20. 

Séowro. If the reading be right, the present tense must show that 
Theramenes alludes to the feeling that the Lacedaemonians entertained 
towards the Athenians at the moment he was speaking. Cobet (Mnem. 
vi. 46) corrects it to y’ é5éovrTo. 

§ 42. 1d dpovpovs proBotc0ar, § 13. 

fws Padiws énéAAopev, «#.7.A., ‘until we, the rulers, should easily 
have made ourselves masters of the ruled.’ 

OpacvBouvdov...”Avurov...’AAKiBidhynv. In §§ 13, 14, 21 
Xenophon alludes only in general terms to the banishment and execu- 
tion of the leading democrats. More extraordinary still, he never even 
mentions the assassination of Alcibiades at this time by Pharnabazus, 
at the wish of Lysander, who had been instigated by Critias to accomplish 
it; cf. Plut. Alc. 38. For Thrasybulus cf. infr..ii. 4. 2 sqq. Anytus 
_was one of the leading democrats, and after his return from exile was the 
foremost accuser of Socrates. 

§ 44. & eye Aéyw, sc. Seiv ylyveoOar. 

avrovs, Thrasybulus and the exiles. 

hysiobas, sc. abrous, accus. and infin. depending on ofya:. 

WOU THS Xopas, partitive genitive. en 

§ 45. “A 8 ad eltev, «.7.A.: ‘again as for his saying that I am of a 
character always to change,’ etc. 

, &bydtoaro : cf. Thuc. viii. 69. 

§ 46. éxeivor pév, «.7.A.: ‘the Lacedaemonians were as vigorous as 
ever’; cf. Thuc. viii. 70. 

émi re Xonar Epupa, i.e. the fort Eetionea ; cf. Thuc. viii. go. 

wait’ aloOopevos. So Thucydides (viii. 92) attributes the discovery 
and exposure of the plan to Theramenes. ~ 

§ 47. xdB0pvov, cf. § 30. 

§ 48. Spayxpiis . . . peréxovey, i.e. should be made senators, a drachma 
being the daily pay for sitting in the Senate. Cobet thinks the expres- 
sion too artificial, and conjectures atrijs, i.e. Ts wéAEws. 

76 pévrov... dpeAciv, «.7.A. If the reading be correct, the sen- 
tence as it stands is an anacoluthon. Xenophon begins with 7d pévrot 
avy rois duvapévors (Sc. dxpeAciv Ty modiTeiay) Kal ped’ immay Kal per’ 


Cc 33 


HELLENICA. 


Book II. dowidey dpereiv, as if he were going on to say riv wodireiav dplorny 


—_—_—— 


IIT. 


mapéxew iyyoupny. Instead of doing so however he breaks off with &a 
Touro (i.e. 3a Tov Svvapévow wpedciy eat ped” Erma, k.7.A.) in the same 
sense as Demosthenes uses the phrase rds ia tiv ddAl-yow todireias and 
entirely alters the construction. Translate :'‘ but to support the consti- - 
tution with the help (ovv) of those who are able to do so both with 
horses and with shields. ...I say, I used formerly to think that a con- 
stitution formed by (8:2) such men is the best,’ etc.; cf. note on §18. For 
the part that Theramenes played in the Four Hundred cf. Thuc. viii. 68. 
§ 50. od Buwrév, ‘ unendurable.’ 

Tovs Ta éyxerplSva éxovras: cf. § 22. 

émi rots Spupdxrors, ‘at the bar,’ a railing made of lattice work, 
with which the dicasts were surrounded. ' 

§ 51. mpoordrou ~épyov efvar ofov Sei, ‘ that it is the duty of such a 
president as a man ought to be.’ ofov is attracted into the case of 
mpoorarov. Two constructions.are here confounded : (1) vouita mpoora-~ 
tou épyoy elva ofov det... dpavTa... pr) émrpémev, and (2) vopl{w 
npoorarny elvas oloy Sei, $s dy dpay . B emerpény. 

év rots katvots vépots : cf. § II alpeBévres ep’ pre ovyypayat vopous : 
and in the Mem. i. 2. 31 Xenophon speaks more specifically of 6 Kprias 

. TRY TpidKovTa ay yonobérns pera XapixdAéous. 

vTav tEw, genitive dependent on «uplous : Bavaroty is added epexe- 
getically. 

ovvSoKotv, used absolutely ; cf. § 35 mpoorayxbér. 

§ 52. émt riv ‘Eorlav, where stood the altar at which the senators 
took their oath. 

§ 53. kat tabra ytyvoonovres, i.e. ‘especially when you perceive.’ 

§ 54. Tous €évSexa: cf. note on i. 7. 10. The Thirty seem to have 
retained this old democratical magistracy, filling it however with the 
most violent of their partisans. 

éxeivor Se circ Obvres, a nominativus pendens without an accom- 
panying finite verb. 
Ta é&k TOUTWV =7a Aird, lit. cwhat comes next.’ 

§ 56. dtroxorraBicavra, i.e. ‘having jerked out the last drop.” The 
xérraBos was a convivial practice, consisting in jerking out the last drop 
from a cup, which was supposed to furnish an omen by its sound in 
falling. Then the guest, who had just drunk, handed on the cup to the 
guest whose turn came next. 

éxeivo 82 xplvw. Here for the only time in the first two books the 
noble death of Theramenes draws from Xenophon a remark in the first 
person. His portrait of him agrees well with that in Thucydides (viii. 68, 
89, 92); cf. Arist. Frogs 968. Theramenes in the Trial of the Generals 


’ does not scruple to sacrifice the lives of others to secure his own. In bring- 


34 





NOTES. CH. III, § 50-—CH. IV, § 6, 


ing about the second oligarchical revolution he is as skilful and successful Book IT. — 
in his intrigues as he was in the first. So soon as he perceives that the —**— 
policy of the Thirty is leading them to certain destruction, he opposes ITI, 
them with the same skill as he had used in setting them up; and when 
at last his opposition brings him into personal danger, the nobler side 
of his character shines out, till he drinks the cup of hemlock with the 
- courage and cheerfulness of Socrates. But after all that can be said in 
his favour, it is hard to understand Aristotle’s judgment on Theramenes, 
quoted by Plutarch (Nicias 2), where he mentions him in the same 
category with the statesmen Nicias and Thucydides, as BéAriorot raw 
modTav Kal maTpiKiy ExovTes ebvoray Kal piAlay mpds Tov Sjyov, though at 
the same time admitting the justice of his nickname of «é@opvos. Beloch 
indeed’ (Die Politik Athens seit Perikles), relying on Theramenes’ own 
words in § 48, tries to show that he consistently aimed to establish a 
moderate democracy at Athens, based on the middle classes, who had 
some stake in the state, both when he joined the conspiracy of the Four 
Hundred in 411, and when he became one of the Thirty in 404 B.Cc., and 
that he turned against his colleagues on both occasions, not from a mere 
wish to save his own life, but because he really disapproved of the 
extreme form of oligarchy, which they had introduced, based as it was 
upon robbery and murder. From the epithet 6 «opyds, which is given to 
him by Aristophanes, we may conclude that he was in the habit of draw- 
ing delicate distinctions; and very delicate distinctions indeed are required 
to free him from the charge of treachery in his conduct at the trial of the 
generals and the capitulation of Athens. : 
§ I. wpoetrov pév... Fyov S€ It appears that- here Xenophon is IV. 
summarizing in a few words numerous acts of violence on the part of the 
Thirty. He omits altogether the edict of the Lacedaemonians forbidding 
any state to harbour the Athenian refugees; cf. Plut. Lys. 27, Isocr. 7. 
67, Diod. xiv. 6, 32. #yov, ‘ evicted.’ 
Gyovres, sc. of tpidxovra. 
§ 2. @paovPovdros: cf. ii. 3. 42. 
@u\jv, between Mounts Cithaeron and Pames, on the road from 
- Athens to Thebes. 
§ 4. @vAdds: the Athenian army was organised on the basis of Cleis- 
thenes’ ten tribes. Cp. Hdt. vi. 111, and note infr. § 23. 
§ 5. ouvetAeypévov ... wept érraxocloys: cf. iv. 6.12 nal dméPavoy 
. . wept Tpraxoatous. 
#5y shows that some considerable interval had elapsed since § 3. 
§ 6. dvloravro, «.7.A., ‘had already risen and were going.’ The notion of | 
motion implied being shown by Swot. The nom. is of woAێpso: understood. 
amd Tév StrAwv, ‘ from the camp.’ 
eos Ca 35 


Boox II. 


os G-aaa 


IV. 


HELLENICA, 


§ 8. otxén voplfovres, «.7.A. Lysias (xxv. 22) represents dissensions 
as having already broken out among the Three Thousand thembelves. 
katagvyfv, Eleusis being a fortified town. 

tmrapayyelAavres, sc. éAdeiv. 

év rots larmedow has probably crept into the fext from rots inmedow 
immediately above. For if the Athenian knights are meant in the sense 
of ‘under the protection of the knights,’ we should rather expect ow 
rois fmmevowv ; and it can hardly mean the Eleusinian knights, because 
it appears, from what immediately follows, that the review was of the 
whole forces, horse and foot alike. Moreover éféracw éy rois immetow 
can scarcely be-equivalent to é¢éracw riv imméay., Classen conjectures 
év rois ’EAevorvioss. . 

avayayévra, i.e. from the coast to Athens. 

wots évdexa, : cf. ii. 3. 54. 

§ 9. 7d ‘QWetov, built by Pericles for musical contests. 

’EXevowvlwv. Both Lysias (xii. 52) and Diodorus (xiv. 32) say that 
the Salaminians were involved in the same fate as the Eleusinians, but 
they put the total number of victims altogether at 300 only. 

havepdv . . . Thy Wiidov: cf. the decree of the Senate as to the trial 
of the generals, i i. 7. 9. 

§ 10. t&v ToAtT@yv, the Three Thousand. : 

dvadépouvcav. The participle is here transposed as wenp0evra i i. I. 23. 

§ 11. én péy, ‘for a while,’ here opposed to a second action, which has 
not yet begun—éwet 8é. 
pi dviévar, i.e. ‘to prevent their march back again to Athens.’ 

& «v«Aos, ‘the wall surrounding Piraeus.’ Thucydides (ii. 13) 
calls it sixty stadia, or nearly seven miles round. 

‘InmmoSa4pecov. Hippodamus, the Milesian Archies had laid out 
the town of Piraeus, 

BevblSevov, the temple of Bendis, the Thracian Moon-goddess. 

émt aevryxovra. This unusual depth was on account of their great 
number. The ordinary depth of the phalanx‘was eight. 

§ 12. én’ atrots, ‘ behind them.’ 
atréGev, ‘from the place itself,’ i.e. from Munychia and the Piraeus. 
aa, 8’ Ada SrAa, i.e. spear and sword. 

§ 13. obs... étakare: cf. § 4. 

Tpépav moira ‘four days ago’; cf, Anab. iv. 5. 24 bvdry huépay. 

vous piAtdrous...dmeonpalvovro. dmocnualveoGa is properly 
applied to the confiscation of goods and chattels only. Here, in his 
indignation, the speaker applies it to citizens. 

mwapayeyévyvrar. The subject is ‘the exiled citizens’: with of 

. povro supply wapayevécOa dy. 
§ 14. cuveAapBavopeba, ‘ were arrested.’ 
36 


NOTES. CH. IV, § 8—§ 23. 


| ovX Saws ... GAA’ obSE, ‘non modo. . . sed ne quidem.’ Book IT. 

év evdla aude : cf. §§ 2, 3, 7. te 

§ 16. rots ye wpwrooraras. The dative may be either after Sehoew IV 
or after pdxeoOar, ° 

dpapricera... dv... peor, i.e. tovray de: 

pvAdatrépevor 5€, #.7.A., ‘but to protect themselves they will always 
be skulking behind their shields.” 

évadAopévous makes better sense if taken of the enemy, ‘to drive 
them back, when they leap upon our ranks.’ 

§ 17. otrw mAovotos Sv kado0: here of7w belongs to #adov. Its 
force is strengthened by the interposition of mAovctos &y, ‘ however rich 
he may be.’ 

tov ‘Evuddtov, ‘the war-god’; cf. Anab. i.. 8. 18 7@ ’Evuadly 
drcAl Cary. 

§ 18. pr mpdrepov éemrlOerGar . . . rpwheln, i.e. in order that the guilt 
of being the first to shed a fellow-citizen’s blood might be upon the 
enemy. | 

§ 19. Trav &e év Tlepare? Séxa dpxévrav. Neither Xenophon, Lysias, 
Diodorus, Nepos, nor Justin mention the appointment of these magis- 
trates, who are here introduced with the article as if already known to 
the reader: Plutarch (Lys.:15) says ed6vs 52 wai ra wept rv wodtsrelay 
exivnoe (Aboavdpos) rpidxovra piv ty dore, déca Be év TMetpace? karacrhoas 
dpxovras. In any case they must have been subordinate to the Thirty, 
who were abroxpdropes, and it can only have been after the refugees from 
Athens had fled to the Piraeus that their office was of any importance. 

§ 20. KAedkxpiros 52 & trav puordv Kfijpug, one of the Eumolpidae, 
the hereditary heralds in the Eleusinian mysteries, Arist. Frogs 1085. 

§ 21. éAlyou Seiv, ‘almost,’ used absolutely. 

év dxtad pyotv, from September 404 to April 403. 

Séxa érn, i.e. the last ten years of the Peloponnesian War, known 
as the Decelean War. Isocrates (xii. 24, 67) says that the Thirty put 
1500 citizens to death. 

§ 22. rév... dwo8avévrev... goriv ovs, ‘some of those who have 
been slain.’ ; 

ol &¢ Aouroi dpxovres: of the Thirty at Athens twenty-seven, and of 
the Ten at Piraeus nine, were still left alive. 

wai Sid 76, «.7.A., i.e. as well as an account of their defeat. 

§ 23. Buedépovro arpos GAAfAovs: cf. note on § 8. 

rots év Ileapaset: the followers of Thrasybulus, now in occupation 
of Piraeus. 

otSev Séowwro, «.7.A., lit. ‘they had no need of these evils’ ; i.e. there 
was no reason why they should suffer them. 

kai etAovro Séxa, éva dad puA‘js, i.e. one from each tribe; cf. iv. 


37 


HELLENICA. 


BookII.' 2. 8 efs dwd wéAews. Cleisthenes in 509 B.c. had divided the Athenians 


Sonam edreesich 


IV. 


into ten tribes, Hdt. v.66. It appears from Lysias (xii. 55) that these Ten 
were of that section of the oligarchical party of which Theramenes had 
been the leader, and that they were chosen because it was thought that 
Sixalws dv bd THY abtav ToUs Te TpidkovTa juceicOau Kal Tovs év Tletpacet 
pircioba. 

§ 24. "EAevotvade: their caraptryn, § 8. 

ow rats dolor: shields were part of the equipment of the hoplites 
or heavy-armed soldiers. “The Athenian knights were now obliged to 
serve as horsemen by day and as hoplites by night. 

§ 25. ol 8€, i.e. of éx Tov TMepaids, 

fypépas Séxa, since they had occupied Piraeus. 

icoreAclav. Such pérorwor as paid no peroimoy, but paid the same 
taxes as full citizens, were called icoreAeis. Before iooreAciav, rovras 
must be supplied : the infin. Zreo@at depends on mora BSdvres. 

ATOLOVpLEVOL . . =“ Napavevres: ne present participles here denote 
frequent repetition. 

émadpav: cf. § 26 ém ra brcdteas This shows that it was already 
summer time, although Xenophon has not marked the beginning of 
another year. 

§ 26. Alfwvéwv. This is Palmer’s conjecture for ray éw véwv, which 
is quite unintelligible. Aigévn was a village between Hymettus and the 
west coast of Attica. ) 

§ 27. mpos rd retxos. Xenophon (Mem. ii. 7. 2) makes Aristarchus 
describe the necessities to which Athens was reduced by these attacks 


‘from Piraeus; cf. Isocr. xvi. 13. 


el Se Kal Tovro Sei, «.7.A. To complete the construction Epo before 
os is required. For the genitive rod pyxavorrovod aftér elmeiv cf, Plat. 
Rep. 439 B row rofdrov ob Karas Exe Aéyerv. 

vTov é&« Auxelouv Spdpov, the open space between the Lyceum and 
the city wall. 

péAXdorev.. . . mpoodyerv, sc. of &« TMetpaids. 

§ 28. twv 8 év TH Kwataddyg, i.e. by order of the Ten, who, instead 
of fulfilling the hopes with which they had been appointed (§ 23), woAbd 
peifov oracw Kai méAepov éwi rovs év Tlepacet .. . éxoingay: cf. Lysias © 
xii. 55. 

ouvérpagev, i.e. with the ambassadors. 

ékarév téAavra, with which to collect a mercenary army, as the 
Spartans refused to send any troops of their own; cf. Lysias xii. 59, 60. 
Isocrates (vii. 77), citing it as an instance of the émeixesa Tod Sjpov, says, 
that shortly after its restoration the democracy repaid this loan to the 
Lacedaemonians, as a debt incurred by the Athenian state, and not 
merely by the oligarchs, who had contracted.it ; cf. Dem. p. 460. 


38 





NOTES. CH. IV, § 24—§ 35. 


§ 29. Otrw Be mpoxwpowvrwv, ‘ while things were going on in this way ;’ 
cf. ii. 2. 16 rovovray 52 dvrav. 

@00vicas Avodvipw. So Diodorus xiv. 33 and Plutarch, Lysan- 
der, 21. 

apeis, i.e. a majority out of the Five Ephors. | 

¢poupdv: a Lacedaemonian word for an army. Lysander had only 
mercenary forces. 

§ 30. wAiv Bowrdv kat Kopw6lov: cf. iii. 5. 5, where the Lacedae- 
monians charge the Boeotians with having persuaded the Corinthians to 
refuse to follow. _ 

edopxeiy : consistently with the a of Peace concluded in 404 
B.C., ii. 2. 22. 
. éylyvaokov : ‘ supposed ’” (wrongly). 

év r@ ‘AAuwéSe: the level ground between Piraeus and Hymettus. 
The fugitives from the violence of the Thirty and the Ten flocked round 
Pausanias at Piraeus, where the king so far showed his real feelings as to 
-refuse the presents offered him by the Thirty ; cf. Lysias xviii. 8-12. 

§ 31. Scov awd Bots Evexev: ‘so far as cries went,’ i.e. in appearance 
only. of is the battle cry. Thuc. viii. g2 eins the same two pre- 
positions with the same meaning. 

Svo pépas : according to Xenophon (Rep. Laced.) the ‘hele Spartan 
army was divided into six morae. Contrast Thucydides v. 68. 

Tov kwdov Atpéva. xorpdy is ‘dumb,’ ‘ quiet,’ in the sense of ‘smooth.’ 
Curtius supposes it to be the innermost part of the harbour. 

§ 32. évévras: ‘ pressing on.’ Xenophon uses the word intransitively 
also in the Cyrop. vii. I. 29. 

7a Séxa ad’ HBys, lit. ‘the men ten years from military age,’ which 


Book II. 


oe ed 


IV. 


at Sparta was fixed at eighteen. The use of the neuter rd is a Lacedae- , 


monian usage; cf. iil. 4. 23, iv. 5. 15. 
70 Ieiparot Oéarpov. Me:paiot is the old locative case. The theatre 
was on the hill of Munychia. 
§ 33. émi 18a, ‘ foot by foot,’ i.e. slowly. 
év Kepapeix@, in the north-west part of Athens. 
§ 34. mpd trav dAAwv én’ Snr, i.e, formed eight deep in front of the 
light-armed troops. 
els xeipas pev é5é£avro, ‘let them come to close quarters.’ 
év tats “AAats, on the coast, south of Phalerum. 
§ 35. Aéyovras .. . were : present participle where the future would 
naturally be expected, as ii. I. 29, iv. 37. 
Silom 52 Kal rovs év 7 dora, ‘ he created a division among,’ etc. 
arpos adas: to himself and the Ephors. 
AaxeSaipoviors piAor evar, i.e. in accordance with the terms of the 
_ former treaty; cf. ii. 2. 20. 


39 


Boox II. 


ip anne 


IV. 


HELLENICA. 


§ 36. voplferar: cf. Xen. Rep. Lac. viii. § mdpecor 82 wat raw épdpov 
300, of roAumpaypovovcw ov8éy, hy pn 6 Baotre’s mpooKkdrAg: dpiwwres 82 & 
Tt WoLEl ExacTos, WaYTAS gespaniCouawé ds rd elxds : cf. Arist. Pol. ii. 9. 30. 

vis pera Tlavoaviou yvopys, two modes of expression are here con- 


fused: (1) THs Tlavoaviov yvmpns Svres, and (2) werd Mavoaviou dvres. 


vas... owovdds: here, ‘ the terms,’ or ‘ offers of peace.’ 

iSumras opposed to of dad rod Kowod in. § 37. 

§ 37. xpijoGat 5,1e BovAovrar: for the expression cf. ii. 1. 2. 

§ 38. of épopdu: the three remaining in Sparta. 

ol é&xAnro.: Hermann (Gr. Staatsalterth. § 25) identifies these with 
the puxpa éxxdAnola, mentioned in iii. 3. 8. But in v. 2. 33, where they 
are again mentioned, no distinction seems to be drawn between them 
and the 700s, who formed the ordinary assembly. Cp. iv. 6. 3; v. 2. 
IL; vi. 3. 3. ; 

émi rd éaurév. This implied, as far as practicable, a restitution of 
the confiscated property; cf. Harpocr. sub voce ovv&xor., 

avrois: to those who difAAagay, i.e. to the Lacedaemonians and; 
Athenians. 

§ 39. dveAOdvres ... elg tiv dxpdwoAw. This’ procession, which 
Lysias (xiii. 86) describes at some length, Plutarch (Glor. Athen. 7) . 
puts on the 12th of Boedromion, i.e. 26th Sept. 403 B.C. 

xatéBnoav ... of orparnyol. Cobet inserts éexAnoiay érolnoay, 
Some words of this kind are evidently required to complete the sense ; 
cf. § 42 ad fin. | 

§ 40. yvolnre, sc. buas abrovs. 

§ 41. 4 ds, ie. 4H xplots ds. 

mapadéAvode: the best MSS. give mepieAfAvdev, which is 5 quite 
unintelligible. Some word is required in the perfect tense, meaning to 
‘outwit,’ as opposed to yrmpp ... mpoéxew. In his earlier editions 
Dindorf*conjectured mapeAd@nre, which in his last edition he has changed 
to mapaAéAvode. Translate, ‘ye have been outdone.’ 

ws, otye, i.e. wis émt rovrows, of ye.” 

kAoup Sioavres, «.7.A. The allusion is to a law of Solon preserved 
in Plutarch (Solon 24) «iva daxdvra mapadotva Krag TpLANXet de- 
Bepévor. 

xdketvot repeats the subject of ye, strengthening . the comparison 
after obra. 

'§ 42. tp&s. Thrasybulus now addresses his own followers. 

§ 43. dpxds Katractycdpevot éroArtrevovro. Euclides was created 
dpyov érdvupos, and in. his archonship and the following years a com- 
plete revision of the Solonian laws and constitution took place to suit 


‘the altered condition of affairs, when Athens had lost her sovereign 


rights and her empire over the subject allies; cf. Andoc. i. 88 sqq. 
e 40 


NOTES. CH. IV,§ 36—§ 43. 


Eévous proPodcQa. Justin (v. 10. 11) gives. an account of the Boox II. 
affair but little more intelligible than Xenophon’s. -The Thirty, it —+.— 
would appear, were suspected of once more conspiring to regain their yy. 
supremacy at Athens. 

tovs "EXevoiv.. The Thirty, their adherents, and such other Athe- 
nians as had since joined them; cf. §. 38. “EAevoi is the locative case. 

py pvyotkaxtostv: cf. Cor. Nepos, Thras. iii. 3 ‘ Legem tulit (Thra- 
sybulus) ne quis ante actarum rerum accusaretur neve multaretur, 
eamque illi oblivionis appellarunt.’ The oath was taken by the knights, 
the senate, and the whole people; and Andocides (i. 90) preserves the 
actual words, «al ob pynoixaxnow Tav wokiTOY obdert mAIY TAY TpLaKOVTA 
wal roy vdexa, ob5e rovray ds dv eA evGivas d:ddvar rhs dpxijs, hs Hpgev. 

én xai viv. It is impossible to fix with any exactitude what time 
is denoted by these words. Xenophon accompanied Cyrus on his expe- 
dition against his brother in 401 B.C., a time which allows too short an 
interval to give the words any real meaning; and he did not return to | 
Greece till 394 B.c. On the other hand it cannot be very long after 
the events described, because the praise assigned to the Athenians must 
mean that consistently with the amnesty they did not prosecute certain 
’ definite persons, who had been implicated in the enormities of the 
Thirty, and such prosecutions were only likely to have taken place in 
the succeeding ten or fifteen years. We may therefore perhaps infer 
that Xenophon wrote these words not very long after his return to 
Greece. 


NOTE ON THE BATTLE OF CYZICUS. 
(1. 1. 16.) 


dre} 8’ éyyts, «.7.A. Diodorus (xiii. 49-51) gives a much fuller 
account of the battle, and conceives it quite differently. Plutarch (Alc. 
28) seems to follow Xenophon in the main, but to add details from the 
same source as Diodorus. 

According to Diodorus, the several divisions of the Athenian fleet 
united at Cardia, and then sailed up the Hellespont to Proconnesus, 
taking care to pass Abydos by night, that the increase in their numbers 
might not be noticed by the enemy. Mindarus, with the help of Phar- 
nabazus, had just taken Cyzicus by storm. Next day the Athenians 
disembarked their soldiers, under Chares, upon the Cyzicene territory, 
and with their fleet in three divisions, under Alcibiades, Thrasybulus, 
and Theramenes, sailed against the enemy at Cyzicus. Alcibiades went 
ahead in order to zpoxaAdoacOa rots woAeplous, the other two generals 

; 4! 


HELLENICA. 


aiming to surround‘them and cut them off from the city. Mindarus 
saw only Alcibiades’ ships, and, despising their numbers, sailed out to - 
meet them; whereupon Alcibiades by pretending flight drew him 
wopparépw THs méAews, till suddenly he faced about, and Theramenes 
and Thrasybulus, seeing his signal, sailed towards the city and cut off 
the Peloponnesians. Mindarus, now seeing the whole Athenian fleet 
(nothing is said about any mist), fled to shore at Cleri, where Pharna- 
bazus was encamped. Alcibiades hotly pursued him, sunk some of his 
ships, took others, and tried to drag others off the beach. The Pelo- 
ponnesian land forces and the troops of Pharnabazus now came to the 
assistance of Mindarus, whereupon Thrasybulus disembarked his marines 
and sent word to Theramenes to bring up the soldiers under Chares. 
Meanwhile Mindarus, supported by the mercenaries of Pharnabazus and 
also by Clearchus, firmly stood his ground. When however Thera- 
menes arrived with the reinforcements and joined Thrasybulus, first the 
mercenaries broke the line and fled, and then Clearchus was obliged to 
retire. Theramenes and his.troops now went off to the help of Alcibiades. 
Mindarus was thus obliged to divide his forces: one division he sent to 
oppose Theramenes, while he ‘himself at the head of the other made 
a brave resistance against Alcibiades, until after many heroic exploits 
he was himself slain. His death was the signal for a general flight 
among the Peloponnesians; but the Athenians were unable to pursue 
them far, because their retreat was covered by Pharnabazus, who now 
arrived on the scene. 

According to Plutarch, Alcibiades, on arriving in the Athenian camp, 
hearing that Mindarus and Pharnabazus were in Cyzicus, determined to 
fight, and exhorted his troops accordingly. Then he sailed with the 
whole fleet to Proconnesus, where he ordered évrés mepiBddAAev Ta AewTa 
mdoia, that no news of his intended attack might reach the enemy, his 
precaution being much aided by a great thunderstorm and thick mist. 
Then the whole fleet set sail, and when the mist gradually lifted, Alci- 
biades saw the Peloponnesian fleet mpd rot Atuévos trav Kulianvaw. 
. Thereupon he ordered the other generals to keep behind out of sight, 
while he himself, sailing on in front with forty ships, rpovxadeiro rovs 
modepious. The Peloponnesians, despising his small numbers, sailed to 
meet him, and at once joined battle; but when the rest of the Athenian 
fleet came up, they turned and fled. At this juncture Alcibiades, drex- 
aAevoas with twenty of his fastest vessels, made for the shore, disembarked, 
and slew many of the enemy, as they fled from their ships. Mindarus 
(who is not mentioned as being on board the Peloponnesian fleet at all) 
and Pharnabazus now came up to the rescue, but in vain: for Alcibiades 
quickly slew Mindarus and put Pharnabazus to flight. 


42 


INDEX. 


*ABapvis dxpa, ii. 1. 29. 

’"ABvinvol, ii. 1. 18. 

"ABvédos, i. 1. 5, 2. 153 ii, 1, 18. 

"Ayevvisas, ii. 3. 10. 

‘Aynoavipisas, i i, Ie I, 3. 17. 

‘Aynotorparos, li, 3. 10. 

"Ays: i. 1. 33, sally from Decelea ; 
ii. 2. 7, Lysander’s message to 
Agis at Decelea; § II, re- 
ception of the Athenian en- 
voys; 3. 3, departure from De- 
celea. 

"Ayray, ii, 3. 30. ; 

"Adelyavros: i. 4. 21, colleague of 
Alcibiades; 7. 1, "colleague of 
Conon; ii. 1. 30, captured at 
Aegospotami; § 23, accused of 
treachery. 

"A@nva, i. I. 4, 3. I (in Phocaea), 
4. 12, 6. 13 ii. 4. 39. 

"AOnva, i. 1. "33. 2. 1, 6. 1s iit. 
10, 3. I, 24. 

"AOnvator, i. I. I, 9, 22, 33, and 
passim. 

Aiywa, li. 2. 9. 

Aiywijrat, li. 2. 3, 9. 

Alyds morapoi, ii. 1. 21. 

Aivnoias, ii. 3. 9. 

Alfoweis, ii. 4. 26. 

Aloxivys, ii. 3. 2, 13. 

"Axabn pia, i a 2. 8. 

‘Axparyas, i. . 21; li. 2, 24, 

*AAail, ii. 4. - 

’AAefias, ii. I. 10. 

*AAefirnldas, ii. 3. 10. 

’AAlaedov, ii. 4. 30. 

“AAs Biabns, the general : 
arrives in the Hellespont; §§ 9- 
11, made prisoner by Tissapher- 


i. I. 5 


nes, but escapes and returnsto the 
Hellespont; §§ 13-19, defeats 
Mindarus at Cyzicus; 2. 15-17, 
fights round Lampsacus; 3. 3, 
besieges Chalcedon; § 10, takes 
Selybria.and swears to the con- 
vention with Pharnabazus; 4. 
8-19, returns to Athens; § 20, 
is made commander-in-chief ; 
§ 21, sails to Andros; § 23, to 
Samos; §. 11, joins Thrasy- 
bulus at Phocaea; § 15, offers 
battle to Lysander and returns 
to Samos; §§ 16, 17, incurs the 
displeasure of the Athenians and 
retires to the Chersonese; ii. 1. 
25, warns the Athenians of their 
danger at Aegospotami; 3. 42, 
sentenced to exile by the Thirty. 


"AAKtBiddns, cousin of the former, 


i, 2. 13. 
’Avairios, ii. 3. 2. 


*Avafirads, i. 3. 18. 
"Avdpiot, i. 4. 22; 
“Avdpos, i. 4. 21, 22, 5. 18. 
‘AvviBas, i. I. 37. 


ii, I. 31, 32. 


"Avrdvdpior, i, I. 26. 

“Avravdpos, 1. 1..25;.3. 173 1 
70. 

"Ayriyévns, i. 3. I. 


*Avrioxos, i. 5. 11 fi. 
*"AyTipar, ii. 3. 40. 

“AvuTos, ii. 3. 42, 44. 
*Ataroupia, 
“Apaxos, ii. 1. 7, 3. 10. 


i. 7. 8. 


“Apyetot, 1. 3. 13; ii. 2.4. 
"Apyvoveat, i. 6. 27, 38. 
*Apeotas, ii. 3. 2. 
*ApioBapCavys, i. 4..7 

43 


INDEX, 


*Apiorapxos, i. 7. 28; ii. 3. 46. 

*Apioroyérvns, the Athenian general, 
i. 5. 16, 6. 29, 7. I. 

*"Aptoroyévns, the Syracusan gene- 
ral, i. 2. 8. 

*Apioroxpdrns: i. 4. 21, colleague 
of Alcibiades; 5. 
chosen general; 6. 29, com- 
mands on the left wing at Argi- 


_ -musae; 7. 2, yeturns to Athens. . 
*ApwororéAns: ii. 2. 18, Athenian 


exile, sent by Lysanderto Sparta ; 
3. 2, one of the Thirty ;° § 13, 
sent to Sparta to ask for a gar- 
rison; § 46, oligarchical leader 
among the Four Hundred. 

’Aplotoyw, i. 3. 18. 

*Apvamns, i. 3. 12. 

“Apres, i, 2. 6 (in Ephesus); ii. 4. 
Il (4 Movvvyia). 

"ApxéSnpos, i. 7. 2. 

*Apxéorparos, i. 5. 16; ii. 2. 15. 

"Apxuras, ii. I. 10, 3. 10. 

*Aola, ii. 1. 18. 

*Aaorvoxos, i. I. 31. 

"ATrikh, i. 7. 22. 

. AdbroBorwdxns, ii. 1. 8. 

"Axaol, i. 2. 18, 


Bevdidecov, ii. 4. 11. 

BiOvvot @pGxes, i. 3. 2. 

Bowwrios, Lacedaemonian, i. 4. 2. 

Bowwrol, i. 3. 153 ii. 4. 30. 

Bpaotéas, ii. 3. 10. 

Bu(dyrior, i. 3. 16, 18, 19. 

Bu(dyriov: i. 1. 35, Clearchus de- 
spatched to guard Byzantium ; 
3. 10, Alcibiades goes to By- 
zantium, and, § 14, lays siege to 
it; § 18, Byzantium betrayed 

-into the hands of the Athe- 

nians ; ii. 2. 1, 2, opens its gates 
to Lysander. 


Tavpiov, i. 4. 22. 
réaa, ii. 3. 5. 
TAaviow, ii. 4. 19. 
Tvq@ois, i, 1. 29. 
 Tépdiov, i. 4. 1. 
TvuOeoy, i. 4. 11. 


44 


16, again 


Aapecatos, ii. 1. 8. 

Aapetos, i. 2,19; ii. 1. 8. 

Aexédera, i, I. 33, 35, 2- 14, 3. 
22s 41..25°7, 3.3. 

Acaginoy, i. 5. 15. 

Anpapxos, i. 1. 29. 

AtoKAjs, ii. 3. 2. 

Acopédov: i. 5.16, chosen general ; 
6. 22, tries to help Conon at 
Mytilene; § 29, commands on 
the left wing at Arginusae; 7. 
2, returns to Athens; §§ 16, 17, 
persuaded his colleagues not 
to mention their orders to the 

- trierarchs ; § 29, wished to rescue 
the survivors after the sea-fight. 

Atovdovos the elder, ii. 2. 24, 3. 5. 

Ardripos, i. 3. 12. 

Apakovridns, ii. 3. 2. . 

Awpeds: i. I. 2, comes from 
Rhodes to the Hellespont; 5. 
19, captured by the Athenians, | 
but afterwards released. - 


Efawres, i. 2. 18. 

*EAaods, ii. I. 20. 

"Edevoinoi, ii. 4. 9. 

"EAevois, ii. 4. 8, 24, 28, 43. 

“EXt£os, i. 3. 15, 21. 

‘EAAds, ii. 2. 6, 20. 

“EAAnVes, i. 5. 9, 6. 14. 

“EAAnvlies méAets, ii. 2. 20. 

“EAAfonovtos: i. 1. 2, Athenians 
check Dorieus’ entrance at the 
mouth of the Hellespont; § 9, 
visit of Tissaphernes to the 
Hellespont; 3. 8, Alcibiades - 
goes to the Hellespont to raise 
money ; ii. 1. 17, Lysander sails 
from Rhodes to the Hellespont ; 
2. 5, Lysander leaves the Helles- 

ont. 


*EvudAuos, ii. 4. 17. 


"Efapxos, ii. 3. 10. 

*Emhparos, ii. 3. 10. 

"EmlSoxos, i. 1. 29. 

"Epaowtléns: i. 5. 16, chosen gene- 
ral; 6. 16, flees with Conon to 
Mytilene; § 29, posted on the 
left wing at Arginusae; 7. 2, 











INDEX, 


returns to Athens; § 29, wished 
after the battle to sail against 
the enemy at Mytilene. 

’*Epagiorparos, ii. 3. 2. 

’Eparoodevns, ii. 3. 2. 

“Eppoxparns, the Syracusan gene- 
ral: i. I. 27, banished by the 
Syracusans; § 30, influence over 
his officers and troops; § 31, 
accused Tissaphernes at Sparta ; 
3. 13, accompanied the Athe- 
nian ambassadors. 

“Eppoxparns, father of the elder 
Dionysius, ii. 2. 24. 

‘Eppov, i. 6. 32. 

‘Eoria, ii. 3. 52. 

*Ereédvitos: i. 1. 32, as Spartan 
harmost, expelled from Thasos ; 
6. 26, left by Callicratidas to 
blockade Mytilene; § 36, strata- 
gem to conceal the defeat at 
Arginusae ; § 38, retreat to Me- 
thymna ; ii. 1.1-4, quells mutiny 
of his troops at Chios; § 5, 


obtains money from the Chians : a 


§ Io, summoned by Lysander 
to Ephesus; 2. 5, causes the 
Athenian allies in Thrace to 
revolt. 

Evaydpas, an Elean, i. 2. 1. 

Evaydpas, of Cyprus, ii. 1. 29. 

Evddpxuros, i, 2. 1; ii. 3. 10. 

EvBoa, li. 3. 9. 

EvBuras, i a eo 

Evdceos, ii. 3. 1. 

Ev«dciéns, ii. 3. 2. 

Eveajs, i. 2. 8. 

Evarhpov, i. 2, 1. 

Evpddns, ii. 3. 2. 

Evpaxos, i. 1. 22. 

EvpunrdaAepos, i. 3. 12. 

EvpunréAepos, son of Pisianax: i. 
4- 19, welcomes Alcibiades at 
Piraeus; 7. 12, threatens Cal- 
lixenus with impeachment; §§ 
16-33, addresses the Assembly 
in defence of the generals; § 34, 
proposes a counter-motion. 

"Edéorot, i. 2. 10, 5. 12, 15. 

"Egecos; i. 2. 6, attacked by Thra- 


syllus; 5. I, 10, head-quarters 
of Lysander ; 6. 2, Callicratidas 
assumes command at Ephesus ; 
ii. 1. 6, conference of Lacedae- 
monian allies at Ephesus. 


Zev{immos, ii. 3. 10. 


"Hidy (Téws ?), i. 5. 15. 

‘Hpd«hea Tpaxuvia, i. 2. 18. 
“Hpakdeibys, i i. 2. 8. 

“HpdxAeov, at Chalcedon, Le 3. ~ 


Saprnpia, i li. I. 13. 

@dcos: i. 1.12, Thrasybulus comes 
from Thasos; § 32, revolution 
at Thasos; 4. 9, subjugated b 
Thrasybulus. ‘ se : 

Ocoryevns, i. pi ie Gee | ae 

@éoyns, ii. 3. 2. ° 

@cdmopumos, ii. 1. 30. 

@erraXia, ii. 3. 4, 36. 

@erradodi, ii. 3. 4. 

@7Ba, ii. 4. 1. 

@nBaiot, i. 7. 28; ii. 2. 19. 

@npapévns: i, I. 12, comes to 
Sestos from Macedonia; § 22, 
left to garrison Chrysopolis; 6. 
35, as trierarch, ordered to rescue 
the drowning sailors after the 
battle of Arginusae; 7. 4, ac- 
cuses the generals before the 
assembly; § 8, intrigues at the 
Apaturia; il. 2.16, sent as envoy 
to Lysander; § 17, sent as pleni- 
potentiary to Sparta; §§ 21, 22, 
announces the terms of peace 
at Athens; 3. 2, chosen one ot 
the Thirty; § 15, quartels with 
Critias; §§ 24-34, accused of 
treachery by Critias; §§ 35-49, 
speaks in his own defence; 
§§ 51-56, ruthlessly executed. 

@iBpaxos, li. 4.33. - 

@opixés, i Oe rae 

@ovpiat Tpinpes, i. 5. 19. 

@paxes, cf. Biduvoil. 

Opdin, t. 3. 10, 17, 4.9; ii. 2. 5. 

Opgiov in Byzantium, i, 3. 20. 

@pagvBovdros (6 Rreepievs): i. 1. 12, 


45 





INDEX, 


comes from Thasos to Sestos; 
4. 9, subjugates Thasos and 
various towns in Thrace; § 10, 
chosen general; 5. II, comes 
from the Hellespont and fortifies 
Phocaea; 6. 35, as trierarch, 
ordered to rescue the drowning 
sailors after the battle of Argi- 


nusae; cf. 7. 5,17, 313 ii. 3. 42, 


exiled by the Thirty; 4. 2, 
marches from Thebes and seizes 
Phyle; §§ 5-7, defeats the troops 
of the Thirty; § 10, marches 
upon Piraeus and occupies Muny- 
chia; §§ 12-19, again defeats 
the forces of the Thirty; § 34, 
defeated by Pausanias; §§ 40— 
42, addresses the Athenian as- 
sembly. 

@pacbAdos: i. 1. 8, sails from the 
Hellespont to Athens for rein- 
forcements; § 33, repulses a 
sally of King Agis; § 34, re- 
ceives reinforcements; 2. I-5, 
sails to Samos, ravages Ionia, 
but suffers a repulse near Co- 
lophon; §§ 6-9, defeated at 
Ephesus; § 13, sails to Sestos; 
§§ 15-17, joins Alcibiades in 
operations round Lampsacus; 
3. 6, helps in the siege of Chal- 
cedon; 4. 10, returns with the 
greater part of the. fleet to 
Athens; 5. 16, chosen general ; 
6. 30, posted on the right wing 
at Arginusae; 7. 2, returns to 
‘Athens; § 29, wished after the 
battle to divide the fleet, and 
thus both to rescue the drown- 
Ing sailors and to sail against 
the enemy. 


“Irreds, i. 6. 29. 

‘Inmoddpeos dyopa, ii. 4. 11. 

“Innoxparns : 1. 1. 23, sends a de- 
spatch to the Spartan govern- 
ment; 3. 5, harmost at Chal- 
cedon ; § 6, slain in battle. 

‘Immddo0xos, ii. 3. 2. 

‘Innépaxos, ii. 3. 2, 4. 19. 

“Immo, i. 2. 8. 

‘Iodvap, ii. 3. 10. 

Iotas, ii. 3. 10. 

‘Toreaceis, ii. 2. 3. 

‘Iovia, ii. 1. 17. 


Kadovoror, ii. I. 13. 

KadAias, Archon, i. 6. 1. 

KadAiBoos, ii. 3. 13, Spartan har- 
most at Athens. 

Kaddxparidas : i. 6. 1-3, succeeds 
Lysander; §§ 4, 5, Conspired 
against by Lysander's partizans ; 
§§ 6, 7, fails to get money from 
Cyrus; §§ 8-12, obtains supplies 
from the Milesians; §§ 13-15, 
storms. Methymna; §§ 16-23, 
blockades Conon in Mytilene; 
§§ 26-33, defeated and drowned 
at Arginusae. 

KaddAifevos: i. 7. 8, accuses the 

generals before the Senate ; § 9, 
moves the Senate’s wpoBovAevpa 
in the Assembly; § 12, threat- 
ened with papi) mapayvopoy ; 
.§ 14, denounces the Prytanes ; 
§ 35, accused of deceiving the 
people, escapes from Athens, 
afterwards returns, and dies of 
hunger. 

KaAXiorparos, il. 4. 27. 

Kadxndovia, i. I. 22. 








@vpoxdpys, 1.1.1. KaAxnddveot, i. 3. 2-9. 
@wpaf, ii, 1. 18, 28. KadAxndev: i. 1. 26, Pharnabazus 
. goes to Chalcedon; § 35, Clear- 
"Idn, i. 1. 25. chus despatched to Chalcedon ; 
‘lepapévys, ii. 1. 9. . 3. 2-8, besieged by the Athe- 
‘Iépwv, the Athenian, ii. 3. 2. nians and made tributary ; ii. 2. 
"TAapxos, ii. 3. 10. I,.2, opens its gates to Lysander, 
"Tuoy, i, I. 4. who appoints Sthenelaus har- 
‘Tuépa, i. 1. 37. most. 


46 


INDEX. 


Kapdpiva, ii, 3. 5. 

Kayvowés, i. 7. 20, 34. 

Kapféia, i. 1. 11. . 

Kapxnddvot, i. 1. 37, 5. 27; ii. 2. 
24, 3- 5- 

Kaorwads, i. 4. 3. 

Kardvn, ii. 3. 5. | 

Kedpeiat, ii. 1. 15. 

Kepapecxés, in Athens, ii. 4. 33. 

Kepapencds and Kepdpecos «dAmos, 
in Caria, i. 4. 8; ii. 1. 15. 

Knquodéoros, ii. 1. 16. 

Kngiods, ii. 4. 19. 

Kngicoginy, ii. 4. 36. 

Kios, i. 4. 7. 

KAa(opevail, i. I. Io. 

KAédapyxos: i. 1. 35, despatched by 
Agis to Chalcedon and Byzan- 
tium ; 3. 15, harmost at Byzan- 
tium; §§ 17-19, leaves Byzan- 
tium in charge of Coeratidas 
and Helixus, while he goes to 
Pharnabazus for aid. 

KAewdpaxos, ii. 3. 10. . 

KAredxpites, ii. 4.°20. 

KAeopnins, ii. 3. 2. 

KAeooOévns, ii. 3. 10. 

Kredorparos, i. 3. 13. 

Krcogay, i. 7. 35. 

Kowpardédas, i. 3. 15-22. 

Kodogpwy, i. 2. 4. 

Kodogpemor, i, 2. 4. 

Kévoyv : “i. 4. 10, chosen to be col- 
league of Alcibiades; 5. 16, 
again chosen general; §§ 18, 
20, sails from Andros to Samos 
to take command of the fleet; 
6. 15-18, pursued by Callicra- 
tidas, and blockaded in Myfti- 
lene; §§ 19-22, by a stratagem 
sends the news to Athens; § 38, 
sails to meet the Athenian gene- 
rals after Arginusae; 7. 1, con- 
tinued in his command; ii. I. 
28, 29, escapes with nine ships 
from Aegospotami and sails‘to 
Cyprus. 

Kopnoosés, i. 2. 7, 9, 10. 

Koply 6:01, ii, 1. 32, 2. 19, 4. 30. 

Kopuddaior, i. 2, 18. 


Kparnoirnidas, Spartan admiral, i. 
I. 32, 5. I. 

Kprrias: ii. 3. 2, one of the Thirty; 
§ 15, quarrels with Theramenes ; 
§ 18, chooses 3000 to be full 
citizens ; §§ 24-34, accuses The- 
ramenes of treachery ; §§ 50-56, 
strikes his name from the roll 
and orders his execution ; 4. 8, 
9, seizes the Eleusinians and 
procures their execution; § 19, 
slain in battle at Munychia. 

Kpoxivas, ii. 3. 1 

Kudov, i. 3. 18, 

Ku(ienvoi, i. 1. 19. 

Ku(iwos: i, 1. 11-18, defeat of the 
Peloponnesians at Cyzicus ; § 19, 
falls into the possession of the 
Athenians; 3. 13, Athenian en- 
veys are bidden to meet Phar- 
nabazus at Cyzicus. 

Kipos: i. 4. 3-7, appointed satrap 
of Sardis, with orders to support 
the Lacedaemonians; 5. 1-7, 
graciously receives Lysander, 

_ and promises higher. pay to the 
Peloponnesian sailors; § 8, dis- 
misses the Athenian ambassa- 
dors; 6. 6, 10, refuses to assist 
Callicratidas; § 18, but sends 
him money after his successes 
in Lesbos; ii. 1. 7, invites the 
Lacedaemonians to appoint Ly- 
sander a second time; $§ 8,9, 
is summoned to visit his father ; 
§§ 11-15, before he goes, he 
entrusts Lysander with the reve- 
nues of his satrapy, warning him 
not to engage with the Athenian 
fleet. 

Kas, i. 5. I. 


AaBwras, i. 2. 18. 

Aaxedaipdvion, i. I. I, 2, 19, and 
passim. 

Aaxedainov, i, 1. 23, 2. 18, and 
passim. 

Aaxparns, ii. 4. 33. 

Adxoy, i. I. n4 

Adsoves, i. 4. 22. 


47 


INDEX. 


Aaxomen, ii. 2. 13. 

Aaxwvikos, i. 6. 34 (viajes); ii. 3. 8, 
4. IO. 

Adpipaxos, i. 2, 15; ii. I. 18, 20, 
29, 2. I. 

Aapioaio, in Thessaly, ii. 3: 4. 

AcovTivot, ii. 3. 5. 

Acovtis vag, ii. 4. 27. 

AdéoBos: i. 2. 11, Athenian fleet 
under Thrasyllus sails to Les- 
bos; 6. 12, Callicratidas sails 
against Lesbos; § 16, Condn 
takes refuge in Mytilene in 
Lesbos; § 27, Arginusae islands 
opposite Lesbos; cf. ii. 3. 32, 
35; ii. 2. 5, Lysander reorgan- 
izes the cities of Lesbos. 

Aevikodogiéns, i. 4. 21. 

Aéwy, Athenian: i. 5. 16, chosen 
general; 6. 16, flees with Conon 
to Mytilene. 

Aéov, Spartan, ii. 3. 10. 

Aéoy, Salaminian, ii. 3. 39. 

AlBus, ii. 4. 28. 

Avdia, i. 2. 4. 

Avxaptos, ii. 3. 10. 

Avxeoy, i. 1. 333 ii. 4. 27. 

Ausictos, i. 7. 13. 

Avxoupyos, 1. 3. 18. 

Avxddpay, ii. 3. 4. 

Avoavipos: i. 5. I, appointed ad- 
miral; §§ 2-7, gets increased 
pay for his sailors from Cyrus ; 
§ Io, makes Ephesus his head- 
quarters; §§ 12-15, defeats An- 
tiochus at Notium, but refuses 
to meet Alcibiades in battle; 
6. 1-5, prejudices his troops and 
partizans against his successor 
Callicratidas; § Io, to injure 
whom he had sent back the 
money, not as yet expended, to 
Cyrus; ii. 1. 6, 7, at the request 
of the allies and Cyrus is once 
more appointed to command 
the fleet, this time as secretary ; 
§§ 13, 14, entrusted by Cyrus 
with the money and revenues 
of his satrapy; §§ 15-19, sails 
to Caria, to Rhodes, then past 


48 


Ionia up the Hellespont to 
Lampsacus, which he takes by 
storm; §§ 22-30, surprises the 
Athenian fleet at Aegospotami 
and captures the whole of it; 
§§ 31, 32, executes the Athenian 
prisoners ; 2.1, 2, subjugates the 
Hellespont, sending back all the 
Athenian garrisons to Athens; 
§ 5, reorganizes Lesbos, and 
other revolted Athenian allies; 
§§ 7-9, blockades Piraeus; § 23, 
enters Piraeus and begins the 
destruction of the Long Walls ; 
3. 3, 6, besieges and captures 
Samos; §§ 7-9, dismisses his 
fleet and returns to Sparta in 
triumph ; § 13, helps the Thirty 
to procure a Spartan garrison ; 
4. 28-30, cf. 36, appointed to be 
harmost of Athens, he collects 
a mercenary force at Eleusis | 
to support the Thirty against 
Thrasybulus, but is thwarted 
by Pausanias. 

Avotas: i. 6. 30, posted on the 
right wing at Arginusae; 7.-2, 
returns to Athens. 

Avoipaxos, ii. 4. 8, 26. 


Mdduros, i. I. 3. 

Maxedovia, 1. I. 12. 

Madéa, in Laconia, i. 2. 18. 

MadAéa daxpa, in Lesbos, i. 6. 26. 

Mavrideos, i. 1, 10, 3. 13. 

Méyapa: i. 1. 36, Clearchus ob- 
tains ships from Megara; cf. 
2.14, 3. 15, Syracusan prisoners 
escape from Piraeus to Megara ; 
li. 4. I, Athenian exiles in -Me- 
gara. 

Mevyapeis, i. 3. 15. 

MeAdv@tos, ii. 3. 46. 

MéAnros, ii. 4. 36. 

Mévavépos : i. 2. 16, commander of 
Athenian hoplites; ii. 1. 16, 
chosen as an additional general 
by the fleet; § 26, foremost in. 
rejecting Alcibiades’ advice at 
‘Aegospotami. 


INDEX. 


Mevexdjs, i. 7. 34. 

Mevexparys, i. I. 29. 

Mrdia, ii. 1. 13. 

M7dor, i. 2. 19. 

Mfévpva: i. 2. 12, Thrasyllus 
anchors at Methymna; 6. 12, 
though strongly garrisoned by 
the Athenians, Methymna is 
stormed by Callicratidas; § 38, 
Eteonicus retires to Methymna. 

MnOvupvaior, i. 6. 13, 14. 

MynAu01, ii. 2. 3, 9. 

MyAdBios, ii. 3.2. 

MiAfoco, i. 6. 8; ii. 1. 30. 

MiAnros: i. 1. 31, new Syracusan 

- generals take up their command 
at Miletus; 2. 2, 3, Milesians 
worsted in battle by Thrasyllus ; 
5. 1, Lysander sails to Miletus; 
cf. 6. 2; 6. 7, 12, Callicratidas 
obtains money from Miletus. 

Mivéapos: i. 1. 4-6, sees battle 
between Dorieus and the Athe- 
nians from Ilium: sails to the 
rescue, but is compelled to retire 
by the arrival of Alcibiades; 
§ 11, threatens the Athenians 
with a fleet of sixty ships; 
§§ 14-18, defeated and slain at 
Cyzicus, 

MioyodAatias, ii. 3. 10. 

Mi7paios, li. 7. 8. 

MirpoBarns, i. 3. 12. 

Mynorbeldys, ii. 3. 2. 

Mynolroxos, ii. 3. 2. 

Movvuxla, ii. 4. 11, 37- 

Mvoia, i. 4. 7. 

Muoxay, i. 1. 29. 

MuriAnvaiot, i. 6. 22. 

MuriAnvyn: i. 6. 16+23, Conon is 
blockaded in the harbour of My- 
tilene ; §§ 26, 35, Eteonicus is 
left in command of the block- 
ading squadron at Mytilene; 
§ 38, Athenians after Arginusae 
sail to Mytilene; cf. 7. 29; ii. 
2. 5, reorganized by Lysander. 


Navapxos: cf. note on i. 5. 1. 
NavedAcidas, ii. 4. 36. 


Nixhparos, ii. 3. 39. 

Nuxias, ii. 3. 39. 

Nixdorparos, il. 4. 6. 

Nériov: i. 2. 4, Thrasyllus sails to 
Notium ; § 11, after his defeat: at 
Coressus he retires to Notium ;. 
5. 12-14, Antiochus, Alcibiades’ 
lieutenant, is defeated at No- 
tium ; cf. ii. 1. 6. 


Répéns, ii. 1. 8. 


Olvén, i. 7. 28. 

Oiratoz, i. 2. 18. 

*Ovopaxdjs, Athenian, ii. 3. 2. 
*OvopaxAfs, Spartan, ii. 3. 10. 
*"Ovopdyrios, il. 3. 10. 


MavraxAjs, i. 3. 13 ii. 3. 10. 

Tldpados, ii. 1. 28, 2. 3. 

Tlaprov, i. 1. 13. 

Tidpos, i. 4. 11. 

Naoirmldas: i, I. 32, exiled from 
Sparta for the part that he had 
played in the revolt of Thasos ; 
3. 13, Spartan envoy; § 17, 
various guardships had been left 
by Pasippidas in the Helles- 
pont. . 

Tarnoidsas, ii. 3. 10. 

Tlavoavias: ii. 2. 7, leads Pelo- 
ponnesian army against Athens ; 
4. 29, 30, through jealousy of 
Lysander, leads out Pelopon- 
nesian allies to Athens; §§ 31- 
34, conducts at the same time 
negociations with, and military 
operations against, the Athe- 
nian democrats in Piraeus; §§ 
35-39, effects a peace between 
Sparta and Athens, and a re- 
conciliation between the Athe- 
nian factions. 

Tle:pasevs, 1. I. 35, 3. 22, 4. 32, 
and passim. 

Tlecciavag, i. 4. 19, 7. 12. 

Tleiowy, ii. 3, 2. 

TleAomovyqoro, i. 1. 6, 17, 19, and 
passim. 

49 


INDEX. 


TleptxA7js ; i. 5. 16, chosen general ; 
6. 29, posted on the left wing 
at Arginusae; 7. 2, returns to 
Athens ; § 16, kinsman of Eury- 
ptolemus; cf. § 21, persuaded 
his colleagues not to mention 
their orders to the trierarchs to 

. rescue the crews. 

Tlepiv@oc, i. 1. 21. 

TlépivOos, i. 1. a1. 

Tlépoa:, i. 2. 19. 

Tlirvas, i. 6. 1; ii. 3. 10. 

TlAeordAas, ii. 3. 10. 

TAuvrhpia, i. 4. 12. 

ToAvyxadpns, ii. 3. 2. 

Tidvros, i. 1. 223 ii. 2. I. 

Tidrajus, i. 1.29. 

Tlpoxdvvnaos, i. 1. 13, 18, 3. t. 

Tipopndevs, ii. 3. 36. 

Tipdfevos, Syracusan, i. 3. 13. 

Ilpwrépaxos: i. 5. 16, 
general; 6. 30, cf. § 33, posted 
on the right wing at Arginusae ; 
7.1, does not return to Athens. 

Ilv-yeAa, i. 2. 2. 

IlvyeAcis, i. 2. 2. 

Tlv@ddmpos, ii. 3. I. 

TluppéAoxos, i. 3. 13. 


“Papdias, i. I. 35. 

“Pddt0s, 1. 5. 19. 

*Péd0s: i. 1. 2, Dorieus comes from 
Rhodes; 5. 1, Lysander sails to 
Rhodes; § 19, Dorieus, an exile 
from Rhodes ; 6. 3, Callicratidas 
gets ships from Rhodes; il. 1. 
15,17, Lysander sails to Rhodes. 


‘Potresoy, i. 1. 2. 


SdAapus, il. 2. 9. 

Sapo, i. 6. 29; ii. 2. 6, 3, 6; 
vijes Sdyuat, 1. 6. 25, 7. 30. 

Zdpos: i, 2.1, Thrasyllus sails to 
Samos; 4. 8, 9, Alcibiades at 
Samos; 5. 14, Athenians after 
their defeat at Notium retire to 
Samos; 6. 15, Conon is cut off 
while sailing to Samos; § 25, 
cf. § 29, Athenians before Argi- 
nusae get reinforcements from 


50 


chosen — 


. Samos; § 38, Athenians retire 
to Samos; ii. 1. 12, Athenians 
fit out their fleet at Samos, 
cf. § 16; ii. 2. 6, remains faithful 
to Athens; 3. 3, 6, 7, surrenders 
to Lysander, who sets up an 
oligarchy within it. 


‘ ZdpSeis, i. 1. g, 10, 5. 1. 


Sdrupos, ii. 3. 54. 

XeAuvous, i. 1. 37. 

XedAwovorn, i, 2. 10; BedAwovorne 
yes, i. 2. 8. 

SerAAaoia, ii. 2. 13, 19. 

XnAvBpia: i. 1.21, gives money to 
Alcibiades; 3. 10, captured by 
Aleibiades. 

Snords: i. 1. 7, 11, headquarters 
of the Athenians on the Helles- 
pont; § 36, Clearchus’ ships 
flee to Sestus; 2. 13, Thrasyllus 
joins the main Athenian fleet at 
Sestus; ii. 1. 20, 25, Athenian 
fleet sails to Sestus and anchors 
fifteen stades from the town. 

ZOevéraos, ii, 2. 2. 

SiweAla, i, 1. 37, 5. 21. 

RieArwrat, ii. 2. 24. 

Sxiovatot, il, 2. 3. 

LoponAfjs, ii. 3. 2. 

Ssaprn, i. 1. 32, 2. 1, 6. 32; ii. 

I 


3.1. 

Srayns, i. 2. 5. 

Svpaxdoie: i, I. 18, burn their 
ships after their defeat at Cy- 
zicus; § 26, build new ships at 
Antandros; 2. 8, 10, lend help 
to the Ephesians at Coressus; 
§ 14, Syracusan prisoners escape 
from the stone quarries at Pi- 
raeus; li. 2. 24, Dionysius tyrant 
of Syracuse; cp. 3. 5. 

Supakoveas, i. 1. 29, 31. 

Sexparns, i. 7. 15. 

Sworparidas, ii. 3. 10. 

Xwppovionos, i. 7°15. 


Ttpoxparns, Athenian, i. 7. 3. 


- Trooapépyns: i. 1.9, comes to the - 


Hellespont and makes Alci- 
biades prisoner; § 31, formerly 





INDEX. 


accused by, Hermocrates at 
Lacedaemon; 2.6-8, helps Ephe- 
sians against Thrasyllus; 5. 2, 
complained of before Cyrus by 
Lysander and the Lacedaemo- 
nians; §§ 8, 9, fails to persuade 
Cyrus to adopt his own tempo- 
rizing policy. 

Tpaxivia, cf. “HpdxAaa. 

Tudevs, ii. 1. 16, 26. 


dayoobérvns, i. 5. 18. 

Papaios, il. 3. 4. 

SapvdBaos;: i. 1. 6, covers Pelo- 
ponnesian retreat to Abydos; 
§ 19, abandons Cyzicus; § 24, 
supplies the Peloponnesians with 
provisions and timber to build 
new ships; § 26, goes to Chal- 
cedon; 2. 16, defeated by Al- 
cibiades; 3. 5-7, fails to raise 
the siege of Chalcedon ; §§ 8-12, 
makes a convention with the 
Athenians and Alcibiades; §§ 
12, 13, promises a safe escort to 
the Athenian ambassadors ; § 17, 
Clearchus, harmostof Byzantium, 
applies to Pharnabazus for aid ; 
4. 1-7, meets Cyrus at Gordium, 
and at his entreaty detains the 
Athenian envoys for three years. 

e.dpias, ii. 3. 2. | 

deldwv, ii. 3. 2. 

PiAodinns, i. 3. 13. 

PiAoKAjjs: i. 7. 1, chosen general ; 
il, 1. 30-32, taken prisoner by 
Lysander at Aegospotami and 
executed, because he had butch- 
ered the crews of two Andrian 
and Corinthian triremes, 

@vAq: ii. 4. 2-=, 7, occupied by 


Thrasybulus and , successfully 
defended against the attacks of 
the Thirty; cf. §§ 10, 12. 

oxaia: i. 3.1, temple of Athena 
in Phocaea burnt; 5. 11, Alci- 
biades joins Thrasybulus at 
Phocaea; 6. 33, Peloponnesian 
fleet after Arginusae mostly flees 
to Phocaea. 


Xa:péAews, ii. 3. 2. 

Xacpidras, ii. 3. ‘10. 

Xalpow, ii. 4. 33. 

XapiwAfjs, ii. 3. 2. 

Xappi8ys, ii. 4. 19. 

Xeppovyoiraz, i. 3. 10. 

Xeppéyyaos: i. 3. 8, 10, Alcibiades 
gets money and troops from 
Chersonesus; 5. 17, Alcibiades 
retires to his forts in Cherso- 
nesus; ii. I. 20, Athenian fleet 
anchors in Elaeus in Chersone- 
sus; § 27, Athenian crews scat- 
tered throughout Chersonesus. 

Xios: i. I. 32, the admiral Crate- 
sippidas assumes his command 
in Chios; 6. 3, 12, 18, Calli- 
cratidas gets ships, money, 
and troops from Chios; ii. 
1. 5, 6, Chians give money to 
Eteonicus and urge the Spartans 
to appoint Lysander a second 
time; cf. §§ 10, 17. 

Xpépow, ii. 3. 2. 

Xpuodmors: i. 1. 22, Alcibiades 
sets up a toll-house at Chryso- 
polis; 3. 12, Alcibiades swears 
to the convention with Pharna- 
bazus at Chrysopolis. 


*"NUBetoy, ii. 4. 9. 


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